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1.Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seed) extract.

Vyas S, Agrawal RP, Solanki P, Trivedi P.

Department of Pharmacology, M.G.M. Medical College, Indore, M.P. India. vyassavita@yahoo.com

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were examined in a partially purified fraction (MTH) of the Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract. The analgesic effects of graded doses of fraction (MTH in 10-40 mg/kg p.o.) were evaluated in mice against acetic acid induced writhing (chemically induced pain) and hot-plate method (thermally induced pain). The analgesia produced by MTH was compared with the standard analgesics pentazocine (PTZ, 5 mg/kg p.o.) and diclofenac sodium (DIS, 5 mg/kg p.o.). Acute anti-inflammatory activity of fraction (MTH) was also evaluated in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model at the doses 10 and 20 mg/kg i.p. and compared with diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg i.p.). In comparison to control group MTH showed highly significant, dose dependent analgesic activity against thermally as well as chemically induced pain (p < 0.001). MTH at the dose of 40 mg/kg has shown significant analgesic activity (p < 0.001) as compared to diclofenac sodium and pentazocine at the doses employed. In comparison to control, MTH at the employed doses produced marked acute anti-inflammatory activity in rats (p <0.001). The results suggest that the water soluble fraction (MTH) of herbal origin has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential as reflected by the parameters investigated. Further investigations are, however, necessary to explore mechanism(s) of action involved in these pharmacological activities.

PMID: 19051589 [PubMed - in process]

2.The Modifying Effects of Galactomannan from Canadian-Grown Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) on the Glycemic and Lipidemic Status in Rats.

Srichamroen A, Field CJ, Thomson AB, Basu TK.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2P5, Canada.

Using high sucrose-fed male Sprague-Dawley rats, a study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding Galactomannan (GAL), a soluble dietary fiber extracted from Canadian-grown fenugreek seeds, on blood lipid and glucose responses. Rats (n = 8, 175-200 g) were randomly assigned to one of three high sucrose diets containing 10% cellulose (control), 7.5% cellulose + 2.5% GAL, and 5% cellulose + 5% GAL, respectively for 4 weeks. After 3 weeks, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on each rat. A week later blood samples were collected to determine the effect on blood lipids. A significant reduction in glycemic response was observed only in 5% GAL group at 120 min following OGTT, when compared with that of control and 2.5% GAL groups. The plasma level of insulin was also significantly reduced (p<0.001) in 5% GAL-fed rats but at all times during OGTT. These animals also showed a reduction in body weight gain (p<0.05) in parallel with less food intake (p<0.05). All GAL-fed (2.5% and 5.0%) rats had significantly reduced plasma levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol in association with a reduction in epididymal adipose weight. Overall, this study demonstrated that feeding GAL from Canadian-grown fenugreek seeds has the potential to alter glycemic and lipidemic status and reduce abdominal fat in normal rats.

PMID: 19015751 [PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2581758

3.Studies on Indian Green Leafy Vegetables for Their Antioxidant Activity.

Gupta S, Prakash J.

Department of Studies in Food Science & Nutrition, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, 570 006, India, sheetalgupta.75@gmail.com.

To identify the potential of green leafy vegetables (GLV) as antioxidants, methanolic extracts of Amaranthus sp., Centella asiatica, Murraya koenigii and Trigonella foenum graecum were studied for their antioxidant activity in different systems at multiple concentrations. Total antioxidant activity assessed by phosphomolybdenum method, free radical scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenly-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and ferrous ion chelating activity were determined. The GLV were analyzed for ascorbic acid, total and beta-carotene and total polyphenol contents. The ascorbic acid, total carotene, beta-carotene and total phenolic content (tannic acid equivalents) of the GLV ranged between 15.18-101.36, 34.78-64.51, 4.23-8.84 and 150.0-387.50 mg/100 g GLV, respectively. The extracts were found to have significantly different levels of antioxidant activities in the systems tested. The total antioxidant activity was highest in Murraya koenigii (2,691.78 mumol of ascorbic acid/g sample) and least in Centella asiatica (623.78 mumol of ascorbic acid/g sample). The extract concentration causing 50% inhibition of DPPH (IC(50)) was determined (M. koenigii < C.asiatica < Amaranthus sp. < T. graecum). The maximum DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power was exhibited by Murraya koenigii. Multiple regression analysis showed that the relationship of total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and reducing power with polyphenol and total and beta-carotene was highly significant.

PMID: 18985454 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4.In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

Palaniswamy M, Pradeep BV, Sathya R, Angayarkanni J.

Department of Microbiology, Karpagam Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 021, Tamilnadu, India. m.palaniswamy@gmail.com.

Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. For the present study, Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) were collected from Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. The test plant has been used in India by traditional healers for the treatment of fever as well as other diseases. The active principle was extracted out in different solvent systems to assess the anti-plasmodial potential, with an aim that they can further be utilized to formulate drugs. In vitro anti-plasmodial assay of the extracted fractions of fenugreek leaves was carried out using laboratory adapted chloroquine sensitive and resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Schizont maturation inhibition assay was adopted to analyze the potential of the extracts. Ethanol extract (50%) seemed to possess profound anti-plasmodial activity with IC(50) value of 8.75 +/- 0.35 microg ml(-1) and 10.25 +/- 0.35 microg ml(-1) against chloroquine sensitive and resistant P. falciparum isolates, respectively. Among the investigated six fractions of the plant extracts, two were found to have significant anti-plasmodial activity with IC(50) values <10 microg ml(-1), namely ethanol and butanol extracts. Two extracts chloroform and ethyl acetate showed moderate activity with IC(50) values ranging from 10 to 20 microg ml(-1), and the other two extracts, hexane and water appeared to be inactive with IC(50) values >85 microg ml(-1). In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the various extracts indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannin like phenolic compounds, flavonoids and steroids.

PMID: 18955334 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

5.Allergenicity and antigenicity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) proteins in foods.

Kruse Fæste C, Namork E, Lindvik H.

National Veterinary Institute; Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

BACKGROUND: Fenugreek is an ingredient in Indian-style spiced foods. Reports of adverse reactions reflect a trend toward a more international cuisine. Fenugreek allergy has not been systematically investigated so far. OBJECTIVE: Study the allergenicity and antigenicity of fenugreek proteins using patient sera and a newly developed polyclonal antifenugreek antibody. METHODS: Allergenic fenugreek proteins were identified by immunoblotting, using sera from 29 patients with specific IgE to peanut and other legumes. In addition, 2 patients were evaluated by skin prick test and open food challenge with native fenugreek powder. Spiced and flavored food products were analyzed for fenugreek by semiquantitative IgE and IgG immunoblotting. RESULTS: High levels of specific IgE to both peanut and fenugreek were seen in most sera. Fenugreek sensitization is believed to be a consequence of cross-reactivity in patients with peanut allergy. Primary fenugreek allergy was suspected in only 1 case. The fenugreek dose eliciting objective symptoms was about 2 mg in the open food challenge. Major fenugreek allergens were identified at 50, 52, and 74 kd and peanut proteins at 22, 36, and 40 kd. A specific polyclonal antifenugreek antibody was found suitable for food analysis. In a food survey, about 1/3 of the fenugreek-containing products were labeled correctly. CONCLUSION: Fenugreek seed powder, an ingredient in spiced foods, contains several potential allergens. There is evidence for a high rate of cross-reactivity to peanut.

PMID: 18930518 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

6.Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Leguminosae): an evidence-based systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration.

Ulbricht C, Basch E, Burke D, Cheung L, Ernst E, Giese N, Foppa I, Hammerness P, Hashmi S, Kuo G, Miranda M, Mukherjee S, Smith M, Sollars D, Tanguay-Colucci S, Vijayan N, Weissner W.

Massachusetts General Hospital, USA.

An evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology and dosing.

Publication Types: PMID: 18928139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7.[Characterization of root nodule and rhizobium of a leguminosae ephemeral plant--Trigonella arcuata C. A. Mey in Xinjiang]

[Article in Chinese]

You T, Tan Z, Gu L, Li X, Yao S, Lan H, Zhang F.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Biological Resources and Genetic Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China. yty2002@163.com

OBJECTIVE: We studied root nodule proliferation, nodule microstructure, genetic cluster and stress resistance of the rhizobium of Trigonella arcuata. METHODS: We characterized root nodule and rhizobium with various soil matrixes cultivation, paraffin section, resin semi-ultrathin section techniques, and 16S rRNA gene cluster analysis. RESULTS: (1) Plants grew in mixed soil (nutritious garden soil: poplar zone soil: desert sands = l:1:1), had the most nodule proliferation and bore the most pods. The shapes of nodule were palm- or ginger-like; (2) Microstructure of the nodule revealed five different parts differentiated within the nodule: epidermis (E), cortex (C), vascular bundle (VB), infected cells (IC) and uninfected cells (UIC); (3) Genetic cluster analysis of the full length 16S rRNA gene sequence (1377 bp) indicated that the rhizobium isolated shared the highest identities with Sinorhizobium meliloti; (4) The rhizobium could grow between 4 and 60 degrees C (20 min), pH 6.0-12.0 and 0-2% NaCl. For the antibiotic sensitivity, the rhizobium could not grow normally in medium with 25 microg/mL Kanamycin, Streptomycin or Cephalothin, except for 100 microg/mL Ampicillin. CONCLUSION: Good conditions of soil matrixes were important for nodulation of T. arcuata; A large quantity of cells in fascicular nodules were infected by rhizobia; 16S rRNA gene sequence of T. arcuata shared the highest identities with that of Sinorhizobium meliloti, and this strain was able to tolerate relatively higher temperature and alkalin.

Publication Types: PMID: 18837370 [PubMed - in process]

8.Rat growth-hormone release stimulators from fenugreek seeds.

Shim SH, Lee EJ, Kim JS, Kang SS, Ha H, Lee HY, Kim C, Lee JH, Son KH.

School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea.

Bioassay-guided fractionation of MeOH extract from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds resulted in the isolation of two rat growth-hormone release stimulators in vitro, fenugreek saponin I (1) and dioscin (9), along with two new, i.e., 2 and 3, and five known analogues, i.e., 4-8. The structures of the new steroidal saponins, fenugreek saponins I, II, and III (1-3, resp.), were determined as gitogenin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, sarsasapogenin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and gitogenin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. Fenugreek saponin I (1) and dioscin (9) caused ca. 12.5- and 17.7-fold stimulation of release, respectively, of rat growth hormone from rat pituitary cells, whereas gitogenin (5) showed moderate activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that steroidal saponins stimulate rat growth-hormone release in rat pituitary cells.

PMID: 18816528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9.The effect of fenugreek 4-hydroxyisoleucine on liver function biomarkers and glucose in diabetic and fructose-fed rats.

Haeri MR, Izaddoost M, Ardekani MR, Nobar MR, White KN.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L) is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. It contains an unusual amino acid, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, demonstrated to have insulinotropic and antidiabetic properties in animal models. Here we examine the effect of 4-hydroxyisoleucine on liver function and blood glucose in two rat models of insulin resistance, fructose-fed rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetes type 2. In fructose-fed rats, levels of glucose and liver damage marker aspartate transaminase were markedly (84% and 93%, respectively) and significantly elevated compared with controls (p < 0.001 for both). Alanine transaminase was elevated slightly (18%), and all markers were restored to near control values after treatment with 4-hydroxyisoleucine at 50 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks, the effect being significant (p < 0.01) for all markers. This prolonged exposure to 4-hydroxyisoleucine was well tolerated in control animals and did not alter levels of glucose or liver damage markers significantly. In diabetic rats, treatment with 4-hydroxyisoleucine did not affect glucose or liver damage markers, but did improve HDL-cholesterol levels (31% increase, p < 0.05). These findings indicate 4-hydroxyisoleucine as a useful and well-tolerated treatment for insulin resistance, both directly as a hypoglycaemic and also as a protective agent for the liver. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 18680121 [PubMed - in process]

10.Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

Cefalu WT, Ye J, Wang ZQ.

Division of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA. William.Cefalu@pbrc.edu

Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area.

Publication Types:  PMID: 18537692 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11.Novel mechanism of modulating natural antioxidants in functional foods: involvement of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria NRRL B-30488.

Nautiyal CS, Govindarajan R, Lavania M, Pushpangadan P.

National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, India. csn@nbri.res.in

The significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown. The plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) mediated induction of dietary antioxidant in vegetables ( Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, and Daucus carota) and fruit ( Citrus sinensis) after minimal processing (fresh, boiled, and frozen) was tested by estimating the total phenol content, level of antioxidant enzymes, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging activities along with integral radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Minimal processing of vegetables showed that T. foenum-graecum had the highest phenol content in B-30488-treated plants followed by L. sativa, D. carota, and S. oleracea. Thermally treated vegetables T. foenum-graecum (26-114.5 GAE microg mg (-1)) had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by D. carota (25.27-101.32 GAE microg mg (-1)), L. sativa (23.22-101.10 GAE microg mg (-1)), and S. oleracea (21.87-87.57 GAE microg mg (-1)). Among the vegetables and fruit used in this study for enzymatic estimation, induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), was observed in edible parts of T. foenum-graecum, L. sativa, S. oleracea, and D. carota, after inoculation with B-30488. The scavenging capacity of the vegetables treated with B-30488 against DPPH and superoxide anion radical activity was found to be significantly high as compared to nontreated control. Mild food processing had no adverse effect on radical scavenging capacity. Photochemiluminescence also ascertains the above findings. The ability of the plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation and its ability to prevent oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in rat liver homogenate, and the results suggested that the inoculated plant exhibited better activity in all of the screened plants. Significant increases in shoot length, root length, and dry weight, averaging 164, 132, and 135% in T. foenum-graecum, 174, 141, and 156% in L. sativa, 129, 141, and 59%, in S. oleracea, and 125, 146, and 42% in D. carota, respectively, over untreated controls, were attained in greenhouse trials. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant enzyme activity (PPO, APX, CAT, and SOD) along with the antioxidant activity of the extracts in both in vitro (DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide scavenging) and ex vivo conditions using the rat liver tissue (percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation and prevention of oxidation of GSH) and phenolic content. The results demonstrate the PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant level in vegetables and fruit controls oxidative damage even after minimal processing and thus is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of synthetic antioxidants.

Publication Types:  PMID: 18491912 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12.Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

Khater HF, Shalaby AA.

Parasitology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt. hafkhater@yahoo.com

The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.

PMID: 18488090 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13.Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): a comparative study.

Ali-Shtayeh MS, Jamous RM, Al-Shafie' JH, Elgharabah WA, Kherfan FA, Qarariah KH, Khdair IS, Soos IM, Musleh AA, Isa BA, Herzallah HM, Khlaif RB, Aiash SM, Swaiti GM, Abuzahra MA, Haj-Ali MM, Saifi NA, Azem HK, Nasrallah HA.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology, An-Najah University, Nablus, Palestine. msshtayeh@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND: A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank), six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. METHODS: Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI), were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca) in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit) were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. CONCLUSION: Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26 % (26/100) of the recorded wild botanicals including the most quoted and with highest mCI values, are currently gathered and utilized in all the areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Palestinian regions. The habit of using wild edible plants is still alive in the PA, but is disappearing. Therefore, the recording, preserving, and infusing of this knowledge to future generations is pressing and fundamental.

Publication Types: PMID: 18474107 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2396604

14.Changes in microbial community structure, methanogenesis and rumen fermentation in response to saponin-rich fractions from different plant materials.

Goel G, Makkar HP, Becker K.

Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics (480b), University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

AIMS: Investigation of the effects of saponin-rich fractions on rumen fermentation, methane production and the microbial community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Saponins were extracted from Carduus, Sesbania and Knautia leaves and fenugreek seeds. Two levels of saponin-rich fractions with a substrate were incubated using the Hohenheim gas method. Methane was measured using an infrared-based methane analyser and microbial communities using quantitative PCR. On addition of saponin-rich fractions, methane and short-chain fatty acid production was not affected. The protozoal counts decreased by 10-39%. Sesbania saponins decreased methanogen population by 78%. Decrease in ruminal fungal population (20-60%) and increase in Fibrobacter succinogenes (21-45%) and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (23-40%) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The saponins evaluated possessed anti-protozoal activity; however, this activity did not lead to methane reduction. Fenugreek saponins seemed to have potential for increasing rumen efficiency. The saponins altered the microbial community towards proliferation of fibre-degrading bacteria and inhibition of fungal population. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The uni-directional relationship between protozoal numbers and methanogenesis, as affected by saponins, is not obligatory. All saponins might not hold promise for decreasing methane production from ruminants.

Publication Types: PMID: 18422554 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15.Stable low molecular weight RNA profiling showed variations within Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae nodulating different legumes from the alfalfa cross-inoculation group.

Del Villar M, Rivas R, Peix A, Mateos PF, Martínez-Molina E, van Berkum P, Willems A, Velázquez E.

Departamento de Microbiología y Genética, Universidad de Salamanca, Spain.

Four different low molecular weight (LMW) RNA profiles, designated I-IV, among 179 isolates from Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella species growing in a field site in Northern Spain were identified. From sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, atpD and recA genes as well as DNA-DNA hybridization analysis with representatives of each LMW RNA profile it was evident that isolates with LMW RNA profiles I and II belonged to Sinorhizobium meliloti and those displaying profiles III and IV to Sinorhizobium medicae. Therefore, two distinct LMW RNA electrophoretic mobility profiles were found within each of these two species. Collectively, LMW RNA profiles I and II (identified as S. meliloti) were predominant in Melilotus alba, Melilotus officinalis and Medicago sativa. Profiles III and IV (identified as S. medicae) were predominant in Melilotus parviflora, Medicago sphaerocarpa, Medicago lupulina and Trigonella foenum-graecum. All the four LMW RNA profiles were identified among isolates from Trigonella monspelliaca nodules. These results revealed a different specificity by the hosts of the alfalfa cross-inoculation group towards the two bacterial species found in this study.

Publication Types:  PMID: 18399993 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16.Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes.

Modak M, Dixit P, Londhe J, Ghaskadbi S, Paul A Devasagayam T.

Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India.

Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world's population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.

PMID: 18398493 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC2275761

17.An in vitro evaluation of fenugreek mucilage as a potential excipient for oral controlled-release matrix tablet.

Nokhodchi A, Nazemiyeh H, Khodaparast A, Sorkh-Shahan T, Valizadeh H, Ford JL.

Medway School of Pharmacy, The University of Kent and Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent, UK. a.nokhodchi@kent.ac.uk

A polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graceum L (family Fabaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. Methocel hypomellose K4M was used as a standard controlled release polymer for comparison purposes. In this study the effect of lactose on the release behaviour of propranolol hydrochloride from matrices formulated to contain the fenugreek mucilage also was investigated. An increase in concentration of the mucilage in matrices resulted in a reduction in the release rate of propranolol hydrochloride comparable to that observed with hypomellose matrices. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from fenugreek mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug:mucilage ratio. However, the mechanism of release from matrices containing drug:mucilage ratios of 1:1, 1:1.25, 1:1.5, and 1:2 remained the same. The kinetics of release, utilising the release exponent n, showed that the values of n were between 0.46-0.57 indicating that the release from fenugreek mucilage matrices was predominantly by diffusion. The presence of lactose in matrices containing mucilage increased the release rate of propranolol hydrochloride. This is due to a reduction in tortuoisity and increased pore size of channels caused by lactose through which propranolol diffuses and therefore diffusion of water into the tablet is facilitated.

Publication Types:  PMID: 18363148 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18.Hypoglycemic effect of a novel dialysed fenugreek seeds extract is sustainable and is mediated, in part, by the activation of hepatic enzymes.

Vijayakumar MV, Bhat MK.

National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India.

A novel preparation of a dialysed aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds (FSE) that stimulates the insulin signalling pathway was reported previously (Vijayakumar et al., 2005). The present study was designed to investigate the long-term effects (multiple dose effect) of this FSE preparation on the blood glucose level and body weight, and a short-term effect (single dose effect) on serum insulin and hepatic enzymes, in experimentally induced diabetic conditions. The multiple dose effect of FSE on the glucose level and body weight was studied in alloxan (AXN)-diabetic mice in comparison with the vehicle treated control diabetic mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of FSE (15 mg/kg body weight (BW)) for 5 consecutive days reduced hyperglycemia in AXN-diabetic mice on day 5 and this effect was further sustained for 10 days. The FSE-induced hypoglycemic effect was accompanied without any reduction in the body weight compared with the diabetic mice in which the body weight was reduced significantly. A single dose effect of FSE on hepatic glucokinase (GK) and hexokinase (HK) enzymes was studied in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. Intraperitoneal administration of FSE (15 mg/kg BW) by 90 min decreased the blood glucose levels significantly (p < 0.01) in STZ-diabetic mice and the effect was comparable to that achieved by insulin (1.5 U/kg BW) injection. This effect was associated with a significant enhancement in the liver GK and HK activities on a par with that of insulin. In normal glucose loaded mice, FSE improved the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance accompanied by a reduction in serum insulin concentration. These results are indicative of an extra-pancreatic mode of action of FSE. The present study concludes that this novel FSE preparation corrects metabolic alterations associated with diabetes by exhibiting insulin-like properties and has a potential for clinical applications. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 18338783 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19.Sub-lethal levels of electric current elicit the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites.

Kaimoyo E, Farag MA, Sumner LW, Wasmann C, Cuello JL, VanEtten H.

Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

Many secondary metabolites that are normally undetectable or in low amounts in healthy plant tissue are synthesized in high amounts in response to microbial infection. Various abiotic and biotic agents have been shown to mimic microorganisms and act as elicitors of the synthesis of these plant compounds. In the present study, sub-lethal levels of electric current are shown to elicit the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in transgenic and non-transgenic plant tissue. The production of the phytoalexin (+)-pisatin by pea was used as the main model system. Non-transgenic pea hairy roots treated with 30-100 mA of electric current produced 13 times higher amounts of (+)-pisatin than did the non-elicited controls. Electrically elicited transgenic pea hairy root cultures blocked at various enzymatic steps in the (+)-pisatin biosynthetic pathway also accumulated intermediates preceding the blocked enzymatic step. Secondary metabolites not usually produced by pea accumulated in some of the transgenic root cultures after electric elicitation due to the diversion of the intermediates into new pathways. The amount of pisatin in the medium bathing the roots of electro-elicited roots of hydroponically cultivated pea plants was 10 times higher 24 h after elicitation than in the medium surrounding the roots of non-elicited control plants, showing not only that the electric current elicited (+)-pisatin biosynthesis but also that the (+)-pisatin was released from the roots. Seedlings, intact roots or cell suspension cultures of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), barrel medic, (Medicago truncatula), Arabidopsis thaliana, red clover (Trifolium pratense) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) also produced increased levels of secondary metabolites in response to electro-elicitation. On the basis of our results, electric current would appear to be a general elicitor of plant secondary metabolites and to have potential for application in both basic and commercial research.

Publication Types:  PMID: 18331050 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20.Protective action of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed polyphenols against alcohol-induced protein and lipid damage in rat liver.

Kaviarasan S, Sundarapandiyan R, Anuradha CV.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, India.

The study investigates the effect of fenugreek seed polyphenol extract (FPEt) on ethanol-induced damage in rat liver. Chronic ethanol administration (6 g kg(-1) day(-1) x 60 days) caused liver damage that was manifested by excessive formation of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes, the end products of lipid peroxidation, and significant elevation of protein carbonyl groups and diminution of sulfhydryl groups, a marker of protein oxidation. Decreased activities of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant levels and decreased levels of thiol groups (both non-protein and protein) were observed in ethanol-treated rats. Further, ethanol significantly increased the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, nitrated and oxidized proteins in liver which was evidenced by immunohistochemistry. Administration of FPEt to ethanol-fed rats (200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyl content, increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and restored the levels of thiol groups. The effects of FPEt were comparable with those of a positive control, silymarin. These findings show that FPEt ameliorates the pathological liver changes induced by chronic ethanol feeding.

Publication Types:  PMID: 18240000 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21.Clinical observation on trigonella foenum-graecum L. total saponins in combination with sulfonylureas in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Lu FR, Shen L, Qin Y, Gao L, Li H, Dai Y.

Department of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trigonella foenum-graecum L. total saponins (TFGs) in combination with sulfonylureas (SU) in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not well controlled by SU alone. METHODS: Sixty-nine T2DM patients whose blood glucose levels were not well controlled by oral sulfonylureas hypoglycemic drug were randomly assigned to the treated group (46 cases) and the control group (23 cases), and were given TFGs or placebo three times per day, 6 pills each time for 12 weeks, respectively. Meanwhile, the patients continued taking their original hypoglycemic drugs. The following indexes, including effects on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms, fast blood glucose (FBG), 2-h post-prandial blood glucose (2h PBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), clinical symptomatic quantitative scores (CSQS), body mass index (BMI), as well as hepatic and renal functions, were observed and compared before and after treatment. RESULTS: The efficacy on TCM symptoms was obviously better in the treated group than that in the control group (P<0.01), and there were statistically remarkable decreases in aspect of FBG, 2h PBG, HbA1c and CSQS in the treated group as compared to those in the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while no significant difference was found in BMI, hepatic and renal functions between the two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The combined therapy of TFGs with sulfonylureas hypoglycemic drug could lower the blood glucose level and ameliorate clinical symptoms in the treatment of T2DM, and the therapy was relatively safe.

Publication Types:  PMID: 18219452 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22.Formulated antidiabetic preparation Syndrex has a strong antioxidant activity.

Dixit PP, Devasagayam TP, Ghaskadbi S.

Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007; India.

Syndrex is a formulated herbal antidiabetic preparation containing powder of germinated fenugreek seeds. We have assessed the antioxidant potential of this drug. Syndrex was fractionated by Soxhlet apparatus and fractions were used to determine their antioxidant potential at different levels. In vitro activity was assessed by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, radical scavenging by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferrylmyoglobin/2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and pulse radiolysis. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Syndrex in mitochondrial preparations from rat liver was checked. Methanolic fraction of Syndrex exhibited the highest antioxidant activity as compared to other fractions. This fraction showed maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents. Isolated mouse pancreatic islets also employed to assess antioxidant activity of Syndrex. Islets were treated with streptozotocin, a diabetogen known to damage islet cells by inducing generation of free radicals. Syndrex treated islets were protected from streptozotocin insult as these islets survived better and remained functional as compared to streptozotocin treated islets.

Publication Types:  PMID: 18206869 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23.Differential effects of soybean and fenugreek extracts on the growth of MCF-7 cells.

Sebastian KS, Thampan RV.

Division of Molecular Endocrinology, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

The effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of soybean and fenugreek on the growth of MCF-7 cells, an estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cell line, has been examined in this study. Soybean is well known for the presence of phytoestrogens and fenugreek is reported to have medicinal use including anticancer properties. In a dose dependent manner soybean aqueous and ethanol extract promoted the growth and DNA synthesis in MCF-7 cells. On the contrary ethanol extract of fenugreek decreased the cell viability and induced early apoptotic changes such as flipping of phosphatidylserine and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. Degradation of cellular DNA into fragments comprising multiples of approximately 180-200 base pair was also observed. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed the presence of a subG1 apoptotic population which was more prominent at higher concentrations along with cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Our experiments show that while the soybean extract acts as a promoter of MCF-7 cell growth, the fenugreek extract induces apoptosis.

Publication Types: PMID: 17850779 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24.Glycogen resynthesis and exercise performance with the addition of fenugreek extract (4-hydroxyisoleucine) to post-exercise carbohydrate feeding.

Slivka D, Cuddy J, Hailes W, Harger S, Ruby B.

Health and Human Performance Laboratory, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812-1825, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding fenugreek extract (FG) to post-exercise carbohydrate feeding on glycogen resynthesis and subsequent exercise performance in normoglycemic male endurance athletes. A muscle biopsy sample was obtained from the vastus lateralis from subjects prior to exercise for 5 h at 50% of peak cycling power (52.1 +/- 3.3% of VO(2) peak). A second muscle biopsy sample was obtained immediately after exercise. Immediately after and 2 h after the second biopsy subjects ingested either an oral dose of dextrose (GLU) (1.8 g x kg BW(-1)) or GLU with FG containing 1.99 +/- 0.20 mg x kg(-1) 4-hydroxyisoleucine (GLU + FG) in a randomized, cross-over, double blind design. At 4 h post-exercise a third biopsy was taken and subjects received a standardised meal along with FG or a placebo capsule. At 15 h post-exercise subjects underwent their final muscle biopsy before completing a simulated 40 km cycling time trial. There was no difference in muscle glycogen at any time between GLU and GLU + FG. Additionally, 40 km time trial performance was similar for average power output (221 +/- 28 vs. 213 +/- 16 watts) and for time to completion (69.7 +/- 3.7 vs. 70.5 +/- 2.2 min) for the GLU and GLU + FG, respectively. Despite earlier data to the contrary, the present results do not support an effect of fenugreek supplementation on glycogen resynthesis, even though this may have been the result of differences in experimental protocol.

PMID: 17710365 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25.Improved alpha-amylase and Helicobacter pylori inhibition by fenugreek extracts derived via solid-state bioconversion using Rhizopus oligosporus.

Randhir R, Shetty K.

Department of Food Science, Chenoweth Laboratory, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

The present research investigated the enrichment of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum) seed substrate with phenolic antioxidants and L-DOPA via fungal-based solid-state bioconversion (SSB) system. This approach using food grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus, was chosen because it has been demonstrated to be effective in other seed and food substrates for improving health-relevant functionality and has long history of use for food processing in Asia. The protein content and beta-glucosidase activity of the substrate which reflects fungal growth, increased with incubation time in conjunction with enhanced phenolic content and also suggested its possible involvement in phenolic mobilization. The antioxidant activity assayed by beta-carotene bleaching and DPPH free radical scavenging methods both indicated high activity during early growth stage (days 4-6) followed by reduced activity during later growth stage (days 8-20). A direct association between higher phenolic contents during early growth stage (days 4-6) and antioxidant activity suggested a link to mobilization of polymeric and hydrophobic phenolic forms. The L-DOPA content of the fenugreek extract fluctuated during the course of bioconversion with higher levels during days 6-10 (1.5-1.7 mg/g DW). The SSB process substantially improved the in vitro porcine alpha-amylase inhibition activity by 75 % on day 4 which correlated to higher levels of total phenolics and related antioxidant activity of the extracts. The high alpha-amylase inhibitory activity also coincided with high L-DOPA content on day 6. These results have implications for diet-based diabetes management. The same bioconversion stage had Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, which has implications for ulcer management.

PMID: 17704018 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26.In vitro hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of some indigenous plants.

Arayne MS, Sultana N, Mirza AZ, Zuberi MH, Siddiqui FA.

Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan. msarayne@gmail.com

Pakistan is rich in medicinally important plants and has ancient herbal treatment methods. Present work is based on the study of six indigenous plants Eugenia jambolana, Lawsonia inermis, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum graecum which show the inhibitory effect of glucose utilization, and are in use as hypoglycemic agents of varying degree in traditional system of medicine. The glucose uptake activity of (methanolic extracts) of these plants was tested in vitro and glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method. The results in three different media revealed that, hypoglycemic activity is more prominent in neutral and basic media as compared to acidic medium.

PMID: 17604247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27.Trigoxazonane, a monosubstituted trioxazonane from Trigonella foenum-graecum root exudate, inhibits Orobanche crenata seed germination.

Evidente A, Fernández-Aparicio M, Andolfi A, Rubiales D, Motta A.

Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell'Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici, Italy. evidente@unina.it

Orobanche crenata is a major threat to grain legume production. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual legume that has been shown to effectively reduce O. crenata infection when intercropped with grain legumes. In this paper, we point that this can be attributed to allelopathy, through inhibition of the germination of O. crenata by fenugreek root exudates. The main inhibitory metabolite was isolated and characterized. Allelopathy was demonstrated in different bioassays, by inhibition of O. crenata seeds germination both by growing fenugreek and pea plants together (intercropped), and by application of fenugreek root exudates. Fenugreek root exudates were extracted with organic solvent and fractionated giving several fractions, two of which showed moderate (27%) and strong (54%) inhibition of O. crenata seed germination, respectively. The most active metabolite is a new monosubstituted trioxazonane, characterized by spectroscopic methods as the 2-butyl-[1,4,7,2]trioxazonane and named trigoxazonane.

Publication Types: PMID: 17604061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28.Prophylaxis effect of Trigonella foenum graecum L. seeds on renal stone formation in rats.

Laroubi A, Touhami M, Farouk L, Zrara I, Aboufatima R, Benharref A, Chait A.

Laboratory of Animal Physiology Unit of Ecophysiology, Cadi-Ayyad University, Faculty of Science Semlalia Marrakech, Morocco. lar_amine@yahoo.fr

Despite considerable progress in medical therapy, there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. Therefore, the current study aimed to look for an alternative by using Trigonella foenum graecum (Tfg) on nephrolithiasic rats as a preventive agent against the development of kidney stones, which is commonly used in Morocco as a phytotherapeutic agent. The inhibitory effect of the aqueous extract of Tfg seeds was examined on the formation of calcium oxalate renal stones induced by ethylene glycol (EG) with ammonium chloride. At the end of the experiment all kidneys were removed and examined microscopically for possible crystal/stone locations and the total calcium amount in the renal tissue was evaluated. The blood was recovered to determine the levels of calcium, phosphorus, creatinine and urea. The results showed that the amount of calcification in the kidneys and the total calcium amount of the renal tissue in rats treated with Tfg were significantly reduced compared with the untreated group. Consequently, Tfg may be a useful agent in the treatment of patients with calcic urolithiasis.

PMID: 17582593 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29.Fenugreek seeds modulate 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced hepatic oxidative stress during colon carcinogenesis.

Devasena T, Venugopal Menon P.

Department of Biotechnology, Mother Teresa Women's University, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India. tdevasenabio@sify.com

1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is a colon carcinogen which undergoes oxidative metabolism in the liver. We have investigated the modulatory effect of fenugreek seeds (a spice) on colon tumor incidence as well as hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant status during DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. In DMH treated rats, 100% colon tumor incidence was accompanied by enhanced LPO and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as a fall in glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Inclusion of fenugreek seed powder in the diet of DMH treated rats reduced the colon tumor incidence to 16.6%, decreased the LPO and increased the activities of GPx, GST, SOD and CAT in the liver. We report that fenugreek modulates DMH-induced hepatic oxidative stressduring colon cancer

Publication Types:  PMID: 17511351 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30.[Unconventional antidiabetic agents]

[Article in German]

Rustenbeck I.

Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig. i.rustenbeck@tu-bs.de

The current pharmacological therapy of type 2 diabetes reduces the risk of diabetic complications, but is not able to achieve a long-lasting normalization of the metabolic disorder. Thus diabetic patients in increasing numbers are taking dietary supplements and herbs from which they expect additional health benefits. These unconventional antidiabetic agents consist mainly in trace metals like chromium, vanadium and zinc and a heterogeneous group of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs (e. g. Momordica charantia, Gymnema sylvestre, Trigonella foenum-graecum) often derived from the ayurvedic medicine. In this overview the current evidence for the antidiabetic effect is presented. The trace elements chromium and vanadium have a number of potentially antidiabetic actions in vitro, however, the results obtained with diabetic patients are not convincing so far. Similarly, the available data on the therapeutic use of herbs suggest that in principle a number of them possess a blood glucose-lowering effect, but at present no firm conclusions as to their efficacy and safety can be made. To set up reliable dose-effect relationships requires the identification of the relevant antidiabetic molecules as was apparently achieved by isolating 4-hydroxyisoleucine from the seeds of T. foenum-graecum. This requirement is also valid in the case of the antidiabetic action of cinnamon. Coffee and a moderate alcohol consumption were found to be surprisingly effective in lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes manifestation, their effect being roughly equal to that of conventional drugs used in diabetes prevention trials. Diabetic patients should inform their physician about the use of unconventional agents and should be warned against uncontrolled starting or stopping their use.

Publication Types: PMID: 17484443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31.Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed polyphenols protect liver from alcohol toxicity: a role on hepatic detoxification system and apoptosis.

Kaviarasan S, Anuradha CV.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

The present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of fenugreek seed polyphenolic extract (FPEt) against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and apoptosis in rats. Chronic ethanol administration (6 g/kg/day x 60 days) caused liver damage that was manifested by the elevation of markers of liver dysfunction--aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in plasma and reduction in liver glycogen. The effects on alcohol metabolizing enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were studied and found to be altered in the alcohol-treated group. Ethanol administration resulted in adaptive induction of the activities of cytochrome p450 (cyt-p-450) and cytochrome-b5 (cyt-b5) and reduction in cytochrome-c-reductase (cyt-c-red) and glutathione-S-tranferase (GST), a phase II enzyme. Further, ethanol reduced the viability of isolated hepatocytes (ex vivo) as assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test and increased hepatocyte apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide staining (PI). Treatment with FPEt restored the levels of markers of liver injury and mitigated the alterations in alcohol metabolizing and detoxification enzymes and the electron transport component cytochrome-c reductase. Increased hepatocyte viability and reduced apoptotic nuclei were observed in FPEt-treated rats. These findings demonstrate that FPEt acts as a protective agent against ethanol-induced abnormalities in the liver. The effects of FPEt are comparable with those of a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin.

PMID: 17484288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32.A validated quantitative thin-layer chromatographic method for estimation of diosgenin in various plant samples, extract, and market formulation.

Trivedi PD, Pundarikakshudu K, Rathnam S, Shah KS.

K.B. Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-23, GH-6, Gandhinagar 382023, Gujarat, India.

A sensitive and reproducible thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed for quantitation of diosgenin, a spiroketal sapogenin. The spots were visualized by spraying with modified anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid reagent. The concentration of anisaldehyde was reduced to 0.1% instead of 1%, and the concentration of sulfuric acid was kept at a minimum of 2%. This successfully reduced charring and background interference. The method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method was used for determination of diosgenin from dried samples of fenugreek seeds, leaves, stem, seed extracts, and a polyherbal antidiabetic formulation containing fenugreek powder as one of the ingredients. Increased detection sensitivity was observed with linearity from 98 to 588 ng/spot and a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.988. The relative standard deviation value for linearity of the method was found to be 0.18%. The method was successfully applied to various plant samples of fenugreek (Methi) with a recovery of 98.11 +/- 1.4%. Dried plant samples and a market formulation were analyzed and found to contain diosgenin in the range of 0.529-0.658% (w/w) in fenugreek seed powders, 0.087% (w/w) in fenugreek leaf powder, 0.015 and 1.27% (w/w) in fenugreek stem powder and extract, respectively, and 0.586% (w/w) in a formulation containing fenugreek seed powder. No matrix interference was observed.

Publication Types: PMID: 17474505 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33.Effects of sodium bicarbonate and albumin on the in vitro water-holding capacity and some physiological properties of Trigonella foenum graecum L. galactomannan in rats.

Dakam W, Shang J, Agbor G, Oben J.

Laboratory of Nutrition & Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.

This study seeks to improve the beneficial effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) galactomannan (GM) in lowering the plasma lipid profile and weight. Three different combinations of diets were prepared with fenugreek GM--(a) fenugreek GM + water (GM); (b) fenugreek GM + sodium bicarbonate (GMB); and (c) fenugreek GM + bicarbonate + albumin (GMBA)--and their in vitro water retention capacity and in vivo lipid-lowering effect were studied. Distilled water and sodium bicarbonate were used as controls. The sodium bicarbonate significantly increased the in vitro water-holding capacity of fenugreek GM (49.1 +/- 8.7 vs. 21.6 +/- 0.9 g of water/g of dry weight, P < .01). Administration by oral intubation of the combination GMBA to male albino Wistar rats (250 mg/kg of body weight) over a 4-week period was the most effective in reducing body weight (-27.0 +/- 0.4%, P < .001). Within this period, the combinations GMBA and GMB brought about the most significant reduction in the levels of plasma total cholesterol (P < .005). The GMBA combination was also the most effective in reducing levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .001) and the atherogenicity indices. GM, GMB, and GMBA brought about significant (P < .01, .001, and .001, respectively) increases in the plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, with the highest increase coming with GMBA. A significant increase in plasma triglycerides (P < .05) was brought about by the GMBA combination, probably resulting from the rapid reduction of body weight observed. Food intake was reduced by GM, GMB, and GMBA, while water intake increased in that order. The GMB combination significantly reduced transit time (P < .01) compared to GM. On the other hand, GMB and GMBA improved glycemic control, compared to GM. We conclude that albumin and sodium bicarbonate have the ability to improve some beneficial physiological effects of fenugreek GM. This finding could have applications in the areas of human obesity, weight loss, and the control of blood lipids.

PMID: 17472483 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34.Effect of food seasoning spices mixture on biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissues of fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats.

Suganthi R, Rajamani S, Ravichandran MK, Anuradha CV.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

High fructose feeding in normal rats induces insulin resistance and also facilitates oxidative damage. The present study examines the effects of a spices mixture (SM) on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant potential in tissues of high fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats. Male Wistar rats received a semisynthetic diet containing either 60% fructose or 60% starch. SM administration at three different doses (10, 30, and 50 mg/day per rat) was initiated orally 15 days later and continued for the next 30 days. After the total experimental period of 45 days, peroxidation of lipids and antioxidant status in liver and kidney were quantified. Fructose-treated rats showed increased levels of peroxidation indices such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides in tissues. The condition was associated with an inadequate antioxidant system. Administration of SM along with fructose diet reduced the levels of peroxidation markers in tissues and improved the antioxidant status. The positive effect of SM on the oxidant-antioxidant balance could be attributed to the active constituents of the different spices present in the mixture.

PMID: 17472479 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35.Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum) polyphenols inhibit ethanol-induced collagen and lipid accumulation in rat liver.

Kaviarasan S, Viswanathan P, Anuradha CV.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu 608 002, India.

Chronic alcoholism is associated with fatty liver and fibrosis characterized by collagen accumulation. Seeds of fenugreek, an annual herb, are reported to possess hepatoprotective activity. The study aims to investigate the effects of fenugreek seed polyphenol extract (FPEt) on liver lipids and collagen in experimental hepatotoxic rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in male albino Wistar rats by administrating ethanol (6 g/kg per day) for 30 days. Control rats were given isocaloric glucose solution. FPEt was co-administered with ethanol at a dose of 200 mg/kg per day for the next 30 days. Silymarin was used as a positive control. Ethanol treatment caused increase in plasma and liver lipids, together with alterations in collagen content and properties. Administration of FPEt to alcohol-fed rats significantly improved lipid profile and reduced collagen content, crosslinking, aldehyde content and peroxidation. The effects were comparable with that of silymarin. FPEt administration had a positive influence on both lipid profile and on the quantitative and qualitative properties of collagen in alcoholic liver disease. The protective effect is presumably due to the bioactive phytochemicals in fenugreek seeds.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17453353 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36.Composition and content of seed flavonoids in forage and grain legume crops.

Prati S, Baravelli V, Fabbri D, Schwarzinger C, Brandolini V, Maietti A, Tedeschi P, Benvenuti S, Macchia M, Marotti I, Bonetti A, Catizone P, Dinelli G.

Inter-departmental Centre for Research in Environmental Sciences (C.I.R.S.A.), University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy.

Flavonoid content and composition in 124 accessions of forage and grain legumes was assessed by means of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of seed extracts. Excluding soybean, only 7 out of 77 grain legume accessions exhibited a total flavonoid content higher than 0.1 mg/g fresh seed weight (mean content 0.33 +/- 0.31 mg/ g fresh seed weight); while in 38 out of 47 forage legume, the mean flavonoid content was 1.49 +/- 0.89 mg/g fresh seed weight. On the basis of their higher seed flavonoid content and agronomic relevance, two grain and five forage legume accessions were selected for further HPLC-ESI-MS analyses aimed to identify bioactive compounds. Chemical analysis of the selected accessions permitted the identification of several flavonoids with pharmaceutical properties such as vitexin in Vigna angularis and Trigonella foenum-graecum, quercetin in all Trifolium spp and Medicago sativa, taxifolin in Trifolium pratense and Trifolium alexandrinum, myricetin in Trifolium repens, kaempferol in Phaseolus vulgaris and T. repens and luteolin in M. sativa and T. alexandrinum. Since much of literature information is regarding flavonoid content and composition of the green part of legume species, the obtained results contributed to fill the gap in knowledge about flavonoid content at the seed level.

Publication Types: PMID: 17444218 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37.Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Xue WL, Li XS, Zhang J, Liu YH, Wang ZL, Zhang RJ.

Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 76 West Yanta Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China 710061. xwl0908@163.com

Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds have previously been shown to have hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects on type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and experimental diabetic animals. The Trigonella foenum-graecum extract has now been investigated for its effects on general properties, blood glucose and blood lipid, and hemorheological parameters in experimental diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were administrated by oral intragastric intubation separately with low dose (0.44 g/kg.d), middle dose (0.87 g/kg.d), high dose (1.74 g/kg.d) of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, and Metformin HCl (0.175 g/kg.d) for 6 weeks. Compared with diabetic group, rats treated with Trigonella foenum-graecum extract had an increase in body weight and a decrease in kidney /body weight ratio (p<0.05). Compared with diabetic group, rats treated Trigonella foenum-graecum extract had lower blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholestrol and higher higher-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). The plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity of high shear rate (200 s-1) and low shear rate (40 s-1), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, whole blood reduction viscosity and platelet conglutination were significantly reduced in diabetic rats treated with high and middle doses of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, but not in those treated with low dose of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. It may be concluded that Trigonella foenum-graecum extract can lower kidney /body weight ratio, blood glucose, blood lipid levels and improve hemorheological properties in experimental diabetic rats following repeated treatment for 6 weeks.

Publication Types: PMID: 17392143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38.Antimicrobial activity and pollen composition of honey samples collected from different provinces in Turkey.

Mercan N, Guvensen A, Celik A, Katircioglu H.

Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Biology, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey. nmercan@pamukkale.edu.tr

The antibacterial activity of honey samples from different sources were collected and investigated against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736, Morganella morganii, Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-4375, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, and Candida albicans. Pathogens exhibited different sensitivities towards the honey samples. The results showed that majority of the honey samples (75%) generally inhibitied the bacteria tested. The honey samples which were obtained from Izmir (samples 1 and 2) proved more effective as inhibitors against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus. The honey which was obtained from Muğla (sample 5) exhibited high anticandidal activity on C. albicans. A comparison of the honey samples on the basis of pollen content revealed that they were heterofloral, and samples which had highest antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus were dominated by pollen from Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae (sample 1), and Trifolium, Trigonella, Cyperaceae, Zea mays and Anthemis taxa (sample 2). The honey proved more effective on bacteria than antibiotics.

PMID: 17365707 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39.Effects of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants on MNNG-treated rat hepatocytes in primary cultures.

Khader M, Eckl PM, Bresgen N.

Division of Genetics, Department of Cell Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.

Aqueous extracts of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae) (Ns), Teucrium polium (Labiatae) (Tp) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fabaceae) (Tf) have been traditionally used to treat inflammations, liver disorders, and arthritis. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that these herbs possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties. To evaluate their in vitro toxicological properties and potential antimutagenic effects aqueous extracts of the three plants were tested in primary rat hepatocyte cultures against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The extracts were applied before, during and after application of MNNG to discriminate between different mechanisms of action. Tp itself significantly increased apoptosis, but in the combined treatment with MNNG significantly reduced it. Post-treatment with Ns or combined treatment with Tf significantly reduced the percentages of necrotic cells. The three plant extracts themselves significantly increased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Summarizing, our results suggest that aqueous extracts of the three herbs have neither cytoprotective nor antimutagenic activity, instead there is evidence for a mutagenic potential.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17324542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40.Soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed improves glucose homeostasis in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes by delaying carbohydrate digestion and absorption, and enhancing insulin action.

Hannan JM, Ali L, Rokeya B, Khaleque J, Akhter M, Flatt PR, Abdel-Wahab YH.

School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK.

Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds have been documented as a traditional plant treatment for diabetes. In the present study, the antidiabetic properties of a soluble dietary fibre (SDF) fraction of T. foenum-graecum were evaluated. Administration of SDF fraction (0 x 5 g/kg body weight) to normal, type 1 or type 2 diabetic rats significantly improved oral glucose tolerance. Total remaining unabsorbed sucrose in the gastrointestinal tract of non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic rats, following oral sucrose loading (2 x 5 g/kg body weight) was significantly increased by T. foenum-graecum (0 x 5 g/kg body weight). The SDF fraction suppressed the elevation of blood glucose after oral sucrose ingestion in both non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic rats. Intestinal disaccharidase activity and glucose absorption were decreased and gastrointestinal motility increased by the SDF fraction. Daily oral administration of SDF to type 2 diabetic rats for 28 d decreased serum glucose, increased liver glycogen content and enhanced total antioxidant status. Serum insulin and insulin secretion were not affected by the SDF fraction. Glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and insulin action were increased by T. foenum-graecum. The present findings indicate that the SDF fraction of T. foenum-graecum seeds exerts antidiabetic effects mediated through inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and absorption, and enhancement of peripheral insulin action.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17313713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41.Purification and characterization of mannose/glucose-specific lectin from seeds of Trigonella foenumgraecum.

Naeem A, Ahmad E, Ashraf MT, Khan RH.

Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, India.

A lectin present in seeds of Trigonella foenumgraecum was isolated and purified by acid precipitation, salt fractionation, and affinity chromatography on mannan cross-linked agarose. SDS-PAGE revealed a single band corresponding to a molecular weight of 27,350 daltons. The lectin agglutinated trypsin-treated rat erythrocytes. Sugar specificity as determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay indicated that the lectin belongs to a glucose/mannose-specific group. The reaction of the lectin with glycoprotein was affected by pH changes. The carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin was investigated by turbidity and activity measurements. As the lectin belongs to the Leguminoceae family, the specificity of the lectin for glucose/mannose renders it a valuable tool for Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

Publication Types: PMID: 17309436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42.Algorithm for complementary and alternative medicine practice and research in type 2 diabetes.

Bradley R, Oberg EB, Calabrese C, Standish LJ.

Bastyr University, Kenmore, WA 98028, USA. rbradley@bastyr.edu

OBJECTIVE: To develop a model to direct the prescription of nutritional and botanical medicines in the treatment of type 2 diabetes for both clinical and research purposes. METHODS: Available literature on nutritional and botanical medicines was reviewed and categorized as follows: antioxidant/anti-inflammatory; insulin sensitizer; and beta-cell protectant/insulin secretagogue. Literature describing laboratory assessment for glycemic control, insulin resistance, and beta-cell reserve was also reviewed and a clinical decision tree was developed. RESULTS: Clinical algorithms were created to guide the use of nutritional and botanic medicines using validated laboratory measures of glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell reserve. Nutrient and botanic medicines with clinical trial research support include coenzyme Q10, carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, chromium, vanadium, omega-3 fatty acids, cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), and gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical algorithms can direct supplementation in clinical practice and provide research models for clinical investigation. Algorithms also provide a framework for integration of future evidence as it becomes available. Research funding to investigate potentially beneficial practices in complementary medicine is critically important for optimal patient care and safety.

Publication Types: PMID: 17309390 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43.Optimisation of polyherbal gels for vaginal drug delivery by Box-Behnken statistical design.

Chopra S, Motwani SK, Iqbal Z, Talegaonkar S, Ahmad FJ, Khar RK.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India. shrutichopra21@yahoo.com

The present research work aimed at development and optimisation of mucoadhesive polyherbal gels (MPG) for vaginal drug delivery. As the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of the gels correlate well to each other the prepared MPGs were optimised for maximum mucoadhesion using a relationship between the storage modulus (G') and Gel Index (GI), by employing a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken statistical design. Independent variables studied were the polymer concentration (X(1)), honey concentration (X(2)) and aerosil concentration (X(3)). Aerosil has been investigated for the first time to improve the consistency of gels. The dependent variables studied were the elastic modulus, G'(Y(1)), gel index (Y(2)), and maximum detachment force (Y(3)) with applied constraints of 500<or=Y(1)<or=700 and 4<or=Y(2)<or=5. Response surface plots were drawn, statistical validity of the polynomials was established and optimised formulations was selected by feasibility and grid search. Three types of Carbopol studied were Carbopol 934P, Carbopol 974P and Polycarbophil. In vitro release studies were carried out for the optimised formulations and the data were fitted to release kinetics equations. Validation of the optimisation study with 8 confirmatory runs indicated high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. Gels showed a gradual sustained release by a non-Fickian diffusion process. Incorporation of aerosil to gels was found to improve the rheological and mucoadhesion properties by about 50-54% and 7-11%, respectively. The Box-Behnken design facilitated the optimisation of polyherbal gel formulations for enhanced vaginal drug delivery by optimum mucoadhesion and longer retention.

Publication Types: PMID: 17270408 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


44.Influence of plant matrix on microwave-assisted extraction process. The case of diosgenin extracted from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.).

Kaufmann B, Rudaz S, Cherkaoui S, Veuthey JL, Christen P.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences EPGL, University of Geneva, 20 bd d'Yvoy, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

A focused microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of diosgenin from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, air-dried and fresh leaves and air-dried roots. Several experimental parameters were studied, including extraction time, microwave power applied and percentage of 2-propanol in the extraction mixture as well as their interactions, in order to optimize the extraction efficiency. The two latter parameters were found to be the most important. Response surface modelling was used to predict the extraction yield of diosgenin in selected matrices. The analysis of diosgenin in crude extracts was carried out by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

PMID: 17260700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45.The symbiosis regulator CbrA modulates a complex regulatory network affecting the flagellar apparatus and cell envelope proteins.

Gibson KE, Barnett MJ, Toman CJ, Long SR, Walker GC.

Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Sinorhizobium meliloti participates in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with legume plant host species of the genera Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella. We recently identified an S. meliloti two-component sensory histidine kinase, CbrA, which is absolutely required to establish a successful symbiosis with Medicago sativa (K. E. Gibson, G. R. Campbell, J. Lloret, and G. C. Walker, J. Bacteriol. 188:4508-4521, 2006). In addition to having a symbiotic defect, the cbrA::Tn5 mutant also has free-living phenotypes that suggest a cell envelope perturbation. Because the bases for these phenotypes are not well understood, we undertook an identification of CbrA-regulated genes. We performed a microarray analysis and compared the transcriptome of the cbrA::Tn5 mutant to that of the wild type. Our global analysis of gene expression identified 162 genes that are differentially expressed in the cbrA::Tn5 mutant, including those encoding proteins involved in motility and chemotaxis, metabolism, and cell envelope function. With regard to those genes with a known role in symbiosis, we observed increased expression of nine genes with overlapping functions in bacterial invasion of its host, which suggests that the mutant could be competent for invasion. Since these CbrA-repressed genes are vital to the invasion process, it appears that down-regulation of CbrA activity is important at this stage of nodule development. In contrast, our previous work showed that CbrA is required for bacteria to establish themselves within the host as nitrogen-fixing symbionts. Therefore, we propose a model in which CbrA functions as a developmental switch during symbiosis.

Publication Types: PMID: 17237174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1855900

46.The use of medicinal herbs by diabetic Jordanian patients.

Otoom SA, Al-Safi SA, Kerem ZK, Alkofahi A.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid-Jordan. sotoom@rcsi-mub.com

Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. To date, there have been no reports on the frequency of use of herb medicines in the managements of diabetes mellitus in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 310 diabetic patients visiting two medical centers in Jordan: Jordan University of Science & Technology Medical Center and Sarih Medical Center between December 2003 and August 2004. It is found that 31% of interviewed patients have used herbal products (96 patients). The results revealed that the most commonly used herbs by diabetic patients in Jordan were Trigonella foenumgraecum (22.9%), Lupinus albus (14.6%), Allium sativum (11.5%), Allium cepa (5.2%), Nigella sativa (7.3%), Zea mays L. (6.3%), Urtica dioica L. (8.3%), Eucalyptus globules LA (9.4%), Olea europea L. (3.1%), Cumminum cyminum (9.4%), Coriandrum sativum (10.4%), Salvia officinalis L. (3.1%), and Tilia cordata (1%). Furthermore, it is found that 47.9% of the patients used herbs according to advice from their friends on a daily basis. The side effects were reported by 36.5% of the patients and include headache, nausea, dizziness, itching, palpitation, and sweating. Among the patients, 72.9% used the herbs as adjunctive therapy along with their anti-diabetic drugs and 80.2% of the patients informed their physicians about their use. A 79.2% of the sample confirmed their intention to re-use these herbs as 86.5% of them were satisfied with their diabetes control. There was a significant relationship between the use of herbs, the patient's place of residence and his/her level of education. The main conclusion of this survey is that the use of medicinal herbs among diabetic patient in Jordan is common. Therefore, it is essential to increase the level of awareness among diabetic patients and health care providers regarding the efficacy and toxicity of these medicinal herbs.

PMID: 17182483 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47.Hypolipidaemic effect of chemically different mucilages in rats: a comparative study.

Boban PT, Nambisan B, Sudhakaran PR.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 581, India.

Different classes of fibres differ in their potential to lower lipid levels. In order to examine how chemically diverse fibres differ in their hypolipidaemic activity, mucilages of varying chemical composition isolated from three different sources were administered to experimental animals and the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins was studied. The mucilages used were a galactomannan isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, a glucomannan from Dioscorea esculenta tubers and an arabinogalactan from Colocasia esculenta tubers. Rats were fed these mucilages at a dose of 4 mg/100 g body weight per d for 8 weeks and the changes in the levels of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in serum, liver and aorta were analysed. All these mucilages decreased lipid levels both in serum and tissues. Among these mucilages, glucomannan showed the most hypolipidaemic effect followed by galactomannan and arabinogalactan. Further, hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of mucilage-fed rats and the synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins were studied using metabolic labelling. There was a decrease in the synthesis and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins, mainly VLDL, by hepatocytes isolated from mucilage-fed rats when compared to control (P<0.05). This was further confirmed by pulse chase analysis. Among the different mucilages, mannose-rich glucomannan showed the most effect followed by galactomannan, and mannose-free arabinogalactan showed minimal effect. Comparison of relative viscosity and water-holding capacity showed that mannan-rich mucilages like galactomannan and glucomannan, which showed greater hypolipidaemic effect, had greater relative viscosity and water-holding capacity. The present results suggested that the hypolipidaemic effect of dietary fibre involves a decrease in hepatic production of VLDL and further that it varies with the nature of the fibre.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17181876 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48.Effects of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum greaecum) extract on endurance capacity in mice.

Ikeuchi M, Yamaguchi K, Koyama T, Sono Y, Yazawa K.

Laboratory of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods Science, Graduate School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 4-5-7, Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan.

The present study was designed to determine the effect of fenugreek seed extract (FG) on endurance capacity in male mice aged 4 wk. Mice were given orally either vehicle or FG (150, 300 mg/kg body weight) by stomach intubation for 4 wk. The 300 mg/ kg FG group showed a significant increase in swimming time to exhaustion as compared to the control group. In the FG groups, blood lactate concentration was significantly lower than in the control group. In the control group, plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and plasma glucose were decreased by swimming exercise. But in the FG group, NEFA and plasma glucose were significantly increased by swimming. FG treatment also significantly decreased fat accumulation. These results suggest that improvement in swimming endurance by the administration of FG is caused by the increase in utilization of fatty acids as an energy source.

PMID: 17087056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49..Determination of bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in vegetables by in vitro methods.

Veda S, Kamath A, Platel K, Begum K, Srinivasan K.

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India.

The in vitro method in use for the determination of beta-carotene bioaccessibility involves simulated gastrointestinal digestion followed by ultracentrifugation to separate the micellar fraction containing bioaccessible beta-carotene and its quantitation. In this study, the suitability of two alternatives viz., membrane filtration and equilibrium dialysis were examined to separate the micellar fraction. Values of beta-carotene bioaccessibility obtained with the membrane filtration method were similar to those obtained by the ultracentrifugation method. Equilibrium dialysis was found not suitable for this purpose. Among the vegetables analyzed, fenugreek leaves had the highest content of beta-carotene (9.15 mg/100 g), followed by amaranth (8.17 mg/100 g), carrot (8.14 mg/100 g) and pumpkin (1.90 mg/100 g). Percent bioaccessibility of beta-carotene ranged from 6.7 in fenugreek leaves to 20.3 in carrot. Heat treatment of these vegetables by pressure cooking and stir-frying had a beneficial influence on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these vegetables. The increase in the percent bioaccessibility of beta-carotene as a result of pressure-cooking was 100, 48 and 19% for fenugreek leaves, amaranth and carrot, respectively. Stir-frying in presence of a small quantity of oil led to an enormous increase in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these vegetables, the increase being 263% (fenugreek leaves), 192% (amaranth leaves), 63% (carrot) and 53% (pumpkin).

Publication Types: PMID: 17054102 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49.Uptake and translocation of metals in fenugreek grown on soil amended with tannery sludge: involvement of antioxidants.

Sinha S, Gupta AK, Bhatt K.

Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, Environmental Sciences Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226 001, India. sinha_sarita@rediffmail.com

Agricultural and industrial activities cause heavy metal pollution in the soil, which adversely affect the plant growing therein. The plants of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) were grown in soil amended with different percent of tannery sludge (TS) (10%, 25%, 35%, 50%, and 100% TS) in order to study the effect on antioxidant levels due to translocation of metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb). The accumulation of the metals was found more in shoots than roots, except Fe and Cr. The level of metals in seeds of the plant increased with increase in sludge amendments ratio except Mn, which decreased in roots, shoots, and seeds of the plant. Chromium was found below detection limits in the seeds at 10% and 25% TS. Correlation coefficient (r) between total metal accumulation and extractable metals showed that Zn (P<0.01), Cr (P<0.01), and Cu (P<0.05) are significantly correlated, whereas, correlation with pH showed significant positive relation with all the studied metals except Mn. Significant positive correlation was recorded between metal accumulation (Fe, Zn, Cu) and electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic matter, however, Zn, Cr, and Cu showed significant positive correlation with bulk density, nitrate, ammonia, and available phosphorus. The analysis of the results showed that total chlorophyll content showed significant (P< 0.5) increase in lower amendment of sludge (up to 35% TS at 30 d and 25% TS at 60 d) as over their controls. In roots, malondialdehyde, cysteine, non-protein thiol, proline, protein, ascorbic acid contents increased up to 35% TS at 30 d. Principal component analysis also showed that strong association exists among malondialdehyde, nonprotein thiol, protein, and cysteine contents in the plants grown on different amendments of TS. The level of antioxidants increased which enabled the plant to cope up the stress induced in the plants grown on lower amendments of TS, however, toxicity was observed at higher amendments.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17049375 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50.Selective determination of mimosine and its dihydroxypyridinyl derivative in plant systems.

Lalitha K, Rajendra Kulothungan S.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India. klalitha@iitm.ac.in

Our observations on the growth stimulatory nature of mimosine, (beta-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridon-1-yl)-L-alanine), the toxic non-protein plant amino acid, in some model experimental systems, warranted sensitive and selective routine estimations. For the determination of both mimosine and DHP, an indirect spectrophotometric method was developed based on their individual reaction with known excess of DZSAM and by estimating the remaining DZSAM with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylene-diamine (NEDA). The resultant decrease in the secondary coupled product was measured at 540 nm. On equimolar basis, DHP had 40% of the reactivity of mimosine while interference from other relevant compounds was 15-35%. The determination of mimosine and DHP in tissue samples under different physiological conditions was effected after paper chromatographic separation of mimosine and DHP with distinctly differing Rf, from other compounds. The indirect method is superior in terms of absolute selectivity, sensitivity and ease of applicability with linear decreases in absorbance, proportional to increasing concentrations of mimosine from 0.1 to 0.75 microM or DHP from 0.2 to 1.5 microM and with recoveries of 99.2 to 100.5%.

PMID: 16988910 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

51.Influence of lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. 4492 and Lupinus angustifolius L. var. zapaton) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) germination on microbial population and biogenic amines.

Martínez-Villaluenga C, Gulewicz P, Pérez A, Frías J, Vidal-Valverde C.

Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales (CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, Madrid 28006, Spain.

Microbial population and bioactive amine profile and levels of two lupin species (Lupinus luteus L. cv. 4492 and Lupinus angustifolius L. var. zapaton) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds as affected by germination were investigated. Microbial population increased considerably mainly in the first stage of germination (2 days), then small changes in bacterial numbers were observed up to 5 days to levels between 7.8 and 8.9 log colony-forming units/g. Microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were dominant for the legumes tested. Ungerminated legume seeds contained putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine, and spermine. Bioactive amine levels found in fenugreek seeds were between 3- and 4-fold higher than those found in lupin seeds. The highest total amine levels were found in fenugreek seeds [162 mg/kg of dry weight (dw)], followed by L. angustifolius var. zapaton seeds (84 mg/kg of dw) and, finally, L. luteus cv. 4492 (46 mg/kg of dw) seeds. The concentration of individual amines showed a gradual rising trend during the germination period in all tested sprouts, reaching levels >3 times higher than those found in ungerminated seeds. After 5 days of germination, the fenugreek sprouts contained the highest amount of total bioactive amines. Tyramine was the predominant amine in both lupin varieties, whereas cadaverine was the main bioactive amine detected in fenugreek. The results of this work thus indicated that microbial population and biogenic amine levels in the studied lupin and fenugreek sprouts are not a risk for healthy consumers or for individuals with restricted activity of detoxification enzymes.

Publication Types: PMID: 16968110 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52.Efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Anopheles pharoensis.

Abdel Halim AS.

Research Institute of Medical Entomology, The General Organization for Institutes and Teaching Hospitals, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The insecticidal activity of Trigonella foenum-graecunm (fenugreek) against the larval maturation and adult emergency of An. pharoensis 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrations of 100%, 70%, 50%, 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.7%, 0.5% & 0.3% showed 100% larval mortality rate. 0.2% & 0.1% caused mortality of 88.9% & 66.7% respectively. On the other hand, the fecundity of emerged adults was zero % and 33.3%. However, one control larvae died and the nine emerged adults were fertile. So, it was recommended to be use in controlling larvae of An. pharoensis.

PMID: 16927858 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53.In vivo effect of Trigonella foenum graecum on the expression of pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT4) in alloxan-diabetic rats.

Mohammad S, Taha A, Akhtar K, Bamezai RN, Baquer NZ.

Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India.

Plasma glucose levels are maintained by a precise balance between glucose production and its use. Liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), 2 key enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, respectively, play a crucial role in this glucose homeostasis along with skeletal muscle glucose transporter (GLUT4). In the diabetic state, this balance is disturbed owing to the absence of insulin, the principal factor controlling this regulation. In the present study, alloxan-diabetic animals having high glucose levels of more than 300 mmol/L have been taken and the administration of Trigonella seed powder (TSP) to the diabetic animals was assessed for its effect on the expression of PK and PEPCK in liver and GLUT4 distribution in skeletal muscle of alloxan-diabetic rats. TSP treatment to the diabetic animals resulted in a marked decrease in the plasma glucose levels. Trigonella treatment partially restored the altered expression of PK and PEPCK. TSP treatment also corrected the alterations in the distribution of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle.

Publication Types: PMID: 16900249 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54.A fibre cocktail of fenugreek, guar gum and wheat bran reduces oxidative modification of LDL induced by an atherogenic diet in rats.

Venkatesan N, Devaraj SN, Devaraj H.

Vaccine Research and Development Center, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli County, Taiwan, ROC. 940714@nhri.org.tw

BACKGROUND: LDL (low-density lipoprotein) oxidation is a key trigger factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Relatively few studies exist on the impact of dietary fibre on LDL oxidation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of a novel fibre mix of fenugreek seed powder, guar gum and wheat bran (Fibernat) on LDL oxidation induced by an atherogenic diet. METHOD: Male Wistar albino rats were administered one of the following diets: (1) a control diet that was fibre-free (Group I); (2) an atherogenic diet containing 1.5% cholesterol and 0.1% cholic acid (Group II) or (3) an atherogenic diet supplemented with Fibernat (Group III). Peroxidative changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and the oxidative susceptibility of LDL and the LDL + VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) fraction were determined. As a corollary to the oxidative modification theory, the titer of autoantibodies to oxidised LDL (oxLDL) was determined at various time points of the study. In addition, plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (Lp (a)), apolipoprotein (apoB), cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and alpha-tocopherol content of LDL were determined. RESULTS: A decrease in malonaldehyde (MDA) content (p<0.05) and relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of LDL was observed in the group III rats as compared to the group II rats. An increase in lag time to oxidation (p<0.01) and decrease in maximum oxidation (p<0.01) and oxidation rate (p<0.01) were observed in the LDL + VLDL fraction of group III rats. In group II rats, formation of autoantibodies to oxLDL occurred at an earlier time point and at levels greater than in the group III rats. Fibernat, had a sparing effect on LDL alpha-tocopherol, which was about 51% higher in the group III rats than in the group II rats; apo B content of LDL was reduced by 37.6% in group III rats. LDL of group III rats displayed a decrease in free and ester cholesterol (p<0.01) as compared to that of group II. A decrease in plasma homocysteine (p<0.01) and an increase in GSH (p<0.05) were also observed in group III rats when compared with that of group II. CONCLUSION: Fibernat administration appears to combat oxidative stress resulting in a trend to lower oxidative modification of LDL. In addition, the cholesterol and apo B content of LDL were reduced significantly with a sparing effect on LDL alpha-tocopherol. This novel fibre preparation could be an effective diet therapy and therefore needs further investigation.

Publication Types: PMID: 16855793 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55. Aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. ameliorates additive urotoxicity of buthionine sulfoximine and cyclophosphamide in mice.

Bhatia K, Kaur M, Atif F, Ali M, Rehman H, Rahman S, Raisuddin S.

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110 062, India.

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a commonly used anti-cancer drug which causes toxicity by its reactive metabolites such as acrolein and phosphoramide mustard. In the present study modulation of toxicity caused by concomitant exposure to CP and l-buthionine-SR-sulfoximine (BSO) by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) extract was evaluated by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-oxidants in urinary bladder in mice. Fenugreek, a common dietary and medicinal herb, showed protective effect not only on LPO but also on the enzymatic anti-oxidants. CP-treated animals exhibited a significant decrease in the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and catalase (CAT) when compared to the controls. Level of reduced glutathione (GSH) was also reduced with an increase in LPO in CP-treated animals. BSO treatment depicted an additive toxic effect in CP-treated animals. Pre-treatment of herbal extract restored activities of all the enzymes and thus showed an overall protective effect on additive effect of CP and BSO. Restoration of GSH by extract treatment may play an important role in reversing CP-induced apoptosis and free radical-mediated LPO in urinary bladder. Fenugreek, known for its hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity, may be a promising protective medicinal herb for consideration in complementary therapy in cancer patients under chemotherapeutic interventions.

Publication Types: PMID: 16828947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56.[HPLC-MSn analysis of trigonelline and its metabolites in rat urine]

[Article in Chinese]

Chen Y, Shen SL, Chen HX, Pan J, Han FM.

Bio-Technology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Key Lab of Hubei Province, Hubei University, Wuhan, China. cy101610@npc.gov.cn

AIM: To establish a rapid and sensitive LC-MSn method for the identification of trigonelline and its main metabolites in rat urine. METHODS: After optimizing the detection conditions of LC-MSn chromatography and mass spectrometry using trigonelline, its ionization and cleavage in ESI-MS and ESI-MSn modes were summarized, then serving as the basis for the metabolite analysis of trigonelline in rat urine. The 0-48 h urine samples of rats were collected after iv 8 mg x kg(-1) trigonelline, then, the samples were purified through C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. The purified samples were analyzed by LC-MSn. RESULTS: The structures of trigonelline metabolites were elucidated according to the changes of the molecular weights of the metabolites (deltaM) and their cleavage pattern in ESI-ITMSn. As a result, two phase I metabolites and the parent drug were identified existing in rat urine, and two phase II metabolites were identified. CONCLUSION: The LC-MSn method is rapid and high sensitive and specific, it is suitable for the identification of trigonelline and its metabolites in rat urine.

Publication Types: PMID: 16758990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57.Cloning, characterization and antifungal activity of defensin Tfgd1 from Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

Olli S, Kirti PB.

Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, India.

Defensins are small cysteine rich peptides with a molecular mass of 5-10 kDa and some of them exhibit potent antifungal activity. We have cloned the coding region of a cDNA of 225 bp cysteine rich defensin, named as Tfgd1, from the legume Trigonella foenum-graecum. The amino acid sequence deduced from the coding region comprised 74 amino acids, of which the N-terminal 27 amino acids constituted the signal peptide and the mature peptide comprised 47 amino acids. The protein is characterized by the presence of eight cysteine resisdues, conserved in the various plant defensins forming four disulphide bridges, which stabilize the mature peptide. The recombinant protein expressed in E coli exhibited antifungal activity against the broad host range fungus, Rhizoctonia solani and the peanut leaf spot fungus, Phaeoisariopsis personata.

Publication Types:  PMID: 16756756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58.Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants.

Jung M, Park M, Lee HC, Kang YH, Kang ES, Kim SK.

Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea. mjung@yonsei.ac.kr

Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinal plants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the review also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants and reported during 2001 to 2005. Many kinds of natural products, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and some others, have shown antidiabetic potential. Particularly, schulzeines A, B, and C, radicamines A and B, 2,5-imino-1,2,5-trideoxy-L-glucitol, beta-homofuconojirimycin, myrciacitrin IV, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid (Glucosol), 4-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose have shown significant antidiabetic activities. Among active medicinal herbs, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminoceae), and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Leguminosae) have been reported as beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Publication Types: PMID: 16719780 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59.Long-term effect of Trigonella foenum graecum and its combination with sodium orthovanadate in preventing histopathological and biochemical abnormalities in diabetic rat ocular tissues.

Preet A, Siddiqui MR, Taha A, Badhai J, Hussain ME, Yadava PK, Baquer NZ.

Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, Applied Molecular Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India.

Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and Sodium Orthovanadate (SOV) have been shown to demonstrate antidiabetic effects by stabilizing glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism in experimental type-1 diabetes. However their efficacy in controlling histopathological and biochemical abnormalities in ocular tissues associated with diabetic retinopathy is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative efficacy of individual as well as combination therapy of TSP and SOV in 8 weeks diabetic rat lens and retina. Retinas and lenses were taken from control, alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated separately with insulin, 5%TSP, SOV (0.6 mg/ml) and a combined dose of SOV (0.2 mg/ml) and 5%TSP for 60 days. Control and each experimental group had six rats. Alterations in the activities of enzymes HK (hexokinase), AR (aldose reductase), SDH (sorbitol dehydrogenase), G-6-PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase), GR (glutathione reductase) and levels of metabolites like sorbitol, fructose, glucose, MDA (malondialdehyde) and GSH (reduced glutathione) were measured in the cytosolic fraction of lenses besides measuring blood glucose levels and glycosylated haemoglobin. Histopathological abnormalities were studied in the lens using photomicrography and retina using transmission electron microscopy. Blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin levels and polyol pathway enzymes AR and SDH increased significantly causing accumulation of sorbitol and fructose in the diabetic lens and treatment with SOV and TSP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased these to control levels. Similarly, SOV and TSP treatments modulated the activities of HK, G-6-PD, GPx and GR in the rat lens to control values. Ultrastructure of the diabetic retina revealed disintegration of the inner nuclear layer cells with reduction in rough endoplasmic reticulum and swelling of mitochondria in the bipolar cells; and these histopathological events were effectively restored to control state by SOV and TSP treatments. In this study SOV and TSP effectively controlled ocular histopathological and biochemical abnormalities associated with experimental type-1 diabetes, and a combination regimen of low dose of SOV with TSP demonstrated the most significant effect. In conclusion, the potential of SOV and TSP alone or in low dose combination may be considered as promising approaches for the prevention of diabetic retinopathy and other ocular disorders.

Publication Types: PMID: 16718375 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60.Lactagogue effects of Torbangun, a Bataknese traditional cuisine.

Damanik R, Wahlqvist ML, Wattanapenpaiboon N.

Dept. of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology IPB University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor-16610, Indonesia. damanik@ipb.ac.id

Coleus amboinicus Lour (CA) has been used as a breast milk stimulant (a lactagogue) by Bataknese people in Indonesia for hundreds of years. However, the traditional use of CA is not well documented, and scientific evidence is limited to establish CA as a lactagogue. This investigation was conducted to elucidate the effect of traditional use of CA during the first month of lactation on quantity and quality of the breast milk. The results collected from the study show that CA supplementation increased breast milk production without compromising the nutritional quality of the breast milk. Lactating women receiving CA supplementation had a 65% increase in milk volume during the last two weeks of supplementation (from Day 14 to Day 28). This increase was greater than that of lactating women receiving Molocco+B12 tablets (10%) or Fenugreek seeds (20%). The residual effects of CA supplementation were seen even after the supplementation had ended for one month. Results of the present study confirmed the belief and the practice amongst the Bataknese people that CA can be used as a lactagogue in humans, and the use of CA might be suitable for lactating women in general.

Publication Types:

PMID: 16672214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61.Low doses of vanadate and Trigonella synergistically regulate Na+/K + -ATPase activity and GLUT4 translocation in alloxan-diabetic rats.

Siddiqui MR, Moorthy K, Taha A, Hussain ME, Baquer NZ.

Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Oral administration of vanadate to diabetic animals have been shown to stabilize the glucose homeostasis and restore altered metabolic pathways. However, vanadate exerts these effects at relatively high doses with several toxic effects. Low doses of vanadate are relatively safe but unable to elicit any antidiabetic effects. The present study explored the prospect of using low doses of vanadate with Trigonella foenum graecum, seed powder (TSP), another antidiabetic agent, and to evaluate their antidiabetic effect in diabetic rats. Alloxan diabetic rats were treated with insulin, vanadate, TSP and low doses of vanadate with TSP for three weeks. The effect of these antidiabetic compounds was examined on general physiological parameters, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity, membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane fluidity in liver, kidney and heart tissues. Expression of glucose transporter (GLUT4) protein was also examined by immunoblotting method in experimental rat heart after three weeks of diabetes induction. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose levels. Activity of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase decreased in diabetic liver and heart. However, kidney showed a significant increase in Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity. Diabetic rats exhibited an increased level of lipid peroxidation and decreased membrane fluidity. GLUT4 distribution was also significantly lowered in heart of alloxan diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin, TSP, vanadate and a combined therapy of lower dose of vanadate with TSP revived normoglycemia and restored the altered level of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, lipid peroxidation and membrane fluidity and also induced the redistribution of GLUT4 transporter. TSP treatment alone is partially effective in restoring the above diabetes-induced alterations. Combined therapy of vanadate and TSP was the most effective in normalization of altered membrane linked functions and GLUT4 distribution without any harmful side effect.

Publication Types:  PMID: 16622606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62.Efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica.

Abdel Halim AS, Morsy TA.

Research Institute of Medical Entomology, The General Organization for Institutes and Teaching Hospitals, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The insecticidal efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) on the 3rd stage larvae of Musca domestica and adult fecundity was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The concentrations from 25% to 100% completely killed the larvae. 5%, 2% and 1% caused mortality percent of 44.4, 33.3 and 22.2 respectively. Less concentration of fenugreek was not tried. On the other hand, the fecundity of the emerged adults was 20%, Zero% and 28.6%. On the other hand, only one control larva died and the nine emerged adults were fertile. So, fenugreek at low concentration not only has a larvicidal action against house fly larvae but also affected the adult fecundity.

PMID: 16605122 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63.[Analysis of DNA homology and 16S rDNA sequence of rhizobia, a new phenotypic subgroup, isolated from Xizang Autonomous Region of China]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang SY, Yang XL, Li HF, Liu J.

College of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China. wsying@tjcu.edu.cn

Based on the studies of numerical taxonomy, the seven rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of leguminous plants Trigonella spp. and Astragalus spp. growing in the Xizang Autonomous Region of China constituted a new phenotypic subgroup, where wide phenotypic and genotypic diversity among legume crops had been reported due to complex terrain and various climate. The new phenotypic subgroup were further identified to clarify its taxonomic position by DNA homology analysis and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The mol% G + C ratio of the DNA among members of the new subgroup ranged from 59.5 to 63.3 mol% as determined by T (m) assay. The levels of DNA relatedness, determined by using the DNA liquid hybridization method, among the members of the new subgroup were between 74.3% and 92.3%, while level of DNA relatedness between the central strains XZ2-3 of the new subgroup and the type strains of known species of Rhizobium was less than 47.4%. These results indicated that the new phenotypic subgroup is a DNA homological group different from described species of Rhizobium. Therefore, this new phenotypic subgroup was supposed to be a new species in the genus of Rhizobium since the strains in the same species generally exhibit levels of DNA homology ranging from 70 to 100%. A systematic identification method-16S rDNA gene sequence comparison was carried out to determine the phylogenetic relationships of the new subgroup with the described species of Rhizobium. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the central strain XZ2-3 of the new subgroup is DQ099745. The full-length 16S rDNA gene sequence were sequenced by chain terminator techniques and analyzed with PHYLIP. The phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the programs DRAWTREE. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new subgroup occupy a independent sub-branch in phylogenetic tree. The sequence similarities between the center strain XZ2-3 and the closest relatives, strain R. leguminosarum USDA2370T and R. etli CFN42T, were 96.55% and 96.62% respectively. Both the 16S rDNA sequence data and the DNA relatedness data suggested that the new phenotypic subgroup isolated from the root nodules of leguminous plants Trigonella spp. and Astragalus spp. obtained from the Xizang Autonomous Region of China represents a new rhizobial species in the genus of Rhizobium according to the minimal standards for the description of new genera and species of root-and stem-nodulating bacteria.

Publication Types:  PMID: 16579480 [PubMed - in process]

64.[Symbiosis between the nodule bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under salinization conditions]

[Article in Russian]

Ibragimova MV, Rumiantseva ML, Onishchuk OP, Belova VS, Kurchak ON, Andronov EE, Dziubenko NI, Simarov BV.

Two hundred forty-three isolates of alfalfa nodule bacteria (Sinorhizobium meliloti) were obtained from legume nodules and soils sampled in the northern Aral region, experiencing secondary salinization. Isolates obtained from nodules (N isolates) were significantly more salt-tolerant than those from soils (S isolates) when grown in a liquid medium with 3.5% NaCl. It was found that wild species of alfalfa, melilot, and trigonella preferably formed symbioses with salt-tolerant nodule bacteria in both salinized and nonsalinized soils. Only two alfalfa species, Medicago falcata and M. trautvetteri, formed efficient symbioses in soils contrasting in salinity. The formation of efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in the presence of 0.6% NaCl was studied in 36 isolates (N and S) differing in salt tolerance and symbiotic efficiency. Fifteen isolates formed efficient symbioses in the presence of salt. The increase in the dry weight of the plants was 25-68% higher than in the control group. The efficiency of symbiotic interaction under salinization conditions depended on the efficiency of the isolates under standard conditions but did not correlate with the source of nodule bacteria (soil or nodule) or their salt tolerance. The results indicate that nodule bacterium strains forming efficient symbioses under salinization conditions can be found.

Publication Types:  PMID: 16579450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65.Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in Chang liver cells.

Kaviarasan S, Ramamurty N, Gunasekaran P, Varalakshmi E, Anuradha CV.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

The protective effect of a polyphenolic extract of fenugreek seeds (FPEt) against ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity was investigated in human Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with either 30 mM EtOH alone or together in the presence of seed extract for 24 h. Assays were performed in treated cells to evaluate the ability of seeds to prevent the toxic effects of EtOH. EtOH treatment suppressed the growth of Chang liver cells and induced cytotoxicity, oxygen radical formation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration was significantly elevated in EtOH-treated cells as compared with normal cells. Incubation of FPEt along with EtOH significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, caused a reduction in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and normalized GSH/GSSG ratio. The extract dose-dependently reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation. Apoptosis was observed in EtOH-treated cells while FPEt reduced apoptosis by decreasing the accumulation of sub-G1 phase cells. The cytoprotective effects of FPEt were comparable with those of a positive control silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent. The findings suggest that the polyphenolic compounds of fenugreek seeds can be considered cytoprotective during EtOH-induced liver damage.

Publication Types: PMID: 16574673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

66.Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some leafy vegetables.

Bajpai M, Mishra A, Prakash D.

Nutraceutical Chemistry, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Some leafy vegetables were studied for their nutritional composition, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The aerial parts of Coriandrum sativum, Spinacia oleracea, Trigonella corniculata and Trigonella foenum-graecum showed lower inhibitory concentration values (4.1-7.9 mg/ml), efficiency concentration values (178-321 mg/mg DPPH) and higher values of anti-radical power (0.31-0.51) as compared with their seeds. Thermal treatment reduced the total phenolic contents, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The leaves of C. sativum were found with good amounts of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and chlorogenic acid.

Publication Types:  PMID: 16503558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

67.The antioxidative power AP--A new quantitative time dependent (2D) parameter for the determination of the antioxidant capacity and reactivity of different plants.

Jung K, Richter J, Kabrodt K, Lücke IM, Schellenberg I, Herrling T.

Gematria Test Laboratory, Berlin, Germany. gematria@email.de

In the last decade, naturally occurring antioxidants continue to play an important role in the food-supplement industry. The content of antioxidants in a plant depends on the species, temperature, humidity, period of growth, harvest month, part of the plant used and many other variables. Herein, we present a new method able to determine the all over antioxidative power (AP) of plant extracts or lyophilised plant parts based on the reducing activity against a stable test radical. The method is performed by ESR spectroscopy and is based on the well-known 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) method with the major difference that both the antioxidative capacity and the antioxidative activity are used to characterise an antioxidant. The resulting antioxidative power is expressed in antioxidative units (AU), where 1AU corresponds to the activity of a 1 ppm solution of Vitamin C as a benchmark. This method allows a rapid, unexpensive and general applicable technique for the measurement of the antioxidative power of very different kinds of substances. The inclusion of the kinetic behaviour of the reducing process of the antioxidant for the determination of the AP allows the identification of the main antioxidant present in a sample. Herein, we present the application example of seeds, sprouts and adult parts of dandelion, amaranth, quinoa, fenugreek, broccoli, red clover and mugwort, where the AP method permits to characterise the plants with the highest antioxidant capacity and reaction velocity. The method permits to select active plant extracts for the food and nutrition industry.

Publication Types: PMID: 16490383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68.Alleviation of hepatic steatosis accompanied by modulation of plasma and liver TNF-alpha levels by Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seeds in Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats.

Raju J, Bird RP.

Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

OBJECTIVE: Oral supplements of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds (Fen) have been shown to treat glucose and lipid homeostasis in several metabolic disorders; however, its ability to alleviate obesity-associated pathologies is not known. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Fen in Zucker obese rats (Ob), an animal model of obesity and related disorders, such as dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Female Zucker (6-week-old) Ob and lean (Ln) rats were randomly grouped (n = 8 rats/group) to receive either basal or 5% Fen-supplemented AIN-93G diets for 8 weeks, and then were euthanized. Histopathology and biochemical parameters in the liver together with plasma biochemistry were assessed. RESULTS: Obese rats had significantly higher (P < 0.05) body and liver weight, as well as plasma insulin, lactate, cholesterol, triglyceride and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha compared to their Ln counterparts. Fen significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the liver-weight of Ob rats in comparison to Ob rats fed basal diet (Control), while no effect was observed in the Ln rats. Fen treatment resulted in a lower P-value (P < 0.05). In addition, Ob rats on Fen-supplemented diets had fasting plama cholesterol and TNF-alpha levels, and significantly higher (P < 0.05) triglycerides in comparison to the control rats. Hepatic triglyceride level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in Ob rats fed Fen supplemented diets in comparison to control. The levels of bound and soluble liver TNF-alpha (26 and 17 kDa, respectively) and TNF receptor-II (TNFR-II, 75 kDa) proteins were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in Ob than in Ln rats. Fen significantly lowered (P < 0.05) both the soluble and bound forms of TNF-alpha protein while significantly elevating (P < 0.05) TNFR-II in the livers of Ob rats compared to Ob Controls. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate unequivocally that in a short-term preclinical evaluation, dietary Fen supplementation reduced the triglyceride accumulation in the liver, a hallmark feature of hepatic steatosis without affecting the plasma insulin or glucose levels in Zucker obese rats and suggest that TNF-alpha may play an important role in this process.

Publication Types: PMID: 16477270 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69.Evaluation of the potential antifertility effect of fenugreek seeds in male and female rabbits.

Kassem A, Al-Aghbari A, AL-Habori M, Al-Mamary M.

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sana'a, Sana'a, Republic of Yemen.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential antifertility activity of feeding diets containing 30% fenugreek seeds to male and female white New Zealand rabbits. RESULTS: The data presented in this study clearly demonstrate an antifertility effect of fenugreek seeds in the female rabbits and more of a toxicity effect in the male rabbits. In males, testis weight was reduced, with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathology of testis tissue sections. In addition, the plasma concentration of the androgen hormone and sperm concentrations were halved in the treated animals. In the case of the females, there was evidence of a significant reduction of developing fetuses as observed by reductions of both fetal and placental weights at 20 days of gestation and of the litter size. This was further supported histopathologically by the observed proliferative changes of the endometrial glands. The circulating plasma progesterone concentrations at 10 and 20 days of gestation significantly increased with no significant effect on the prebreeding estrogen concentrations in the treated animals.

PMID: 16472574 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70.[Study on chemical constituents in total saponin from Trigonella foenum-graecum]

[Article in Chinese]

Yang WX, Huang HY, Wang YJ, Jia ZY, Li LL.

Changji Medical School, Changji 831100, China. ywxyt@163.com

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents in the total saponin from Trigonellf foenum-graecum. METHOD: The compounds were isolated by column chromatography on macroporous resin and silica gel and elucidated by physical and chemical evidences and spectroscopic analysis. RESULT: Two compounds were obtained and identifiedas methyl-protodioscin and methyl-protodeltonin. CONCLUSION: Methyl-protodioscin and methyl-protodeltonin were isolated from this plant for the first time.

Publication Types: PMID: 16381462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

71..Effect of supplementation of traditional medicinal plants on blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetics: a pilot study.

Kochhar A, Nagi M.

Department of Food & Nutrition, College of Home Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. dranitakochhar@yahoo.com

The effect of supplementation of a powdered mixture of three traditional medicinal plants-bittergourd, jamun seeds, and fenugreek seeds-in raw and cooked form on blood glucose was studied in 60 non-insulin-dependent male diabetics. The patients were divided into two groups of 30 each. The patients of group I were given the raw powdered mixture in the form of capsules; the patients of group II were given this mixture in the form of salty biscuits. Daily supplementation of 1 g of this powered mixture for a 1.5-month period and then a further increase to 2 g for another 1.5 months significantly reduced the fasting as well as the postprandial glucose level of the diabetic patients. A significant decrease in oral hypoglycemic drug intake and decline in percentage of the subjects who were on hypoglycemic drugs were found after the 3-month feeding trial. It was concluded that 2 g of a powdered mixture of traditional medicinal plants in either raw or cooked form can be successfully used for lowering blood glucose in diabetics.

PMID: 16379570 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72.Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts.

Srinivasan K.

Department of Biochemistry & Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore-570013, India.

Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.

Publication Types: PMID: 16361181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73.Diosgenin inhibits osteoclastogenesis, invasion, and proliferation through the downregulation of Akt, I kappa B kinase activation and NF-kappa B-regulated gene expression.

Shishodia S, Aggarwal BB.

Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin present in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and other plants, has been shown to suppress inflammation, inhibit proliferation, and induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells, but through a mechanism that is poorly understood. In the present study, we report that diosgenin inhibits receptor-activated nuclear factor-kappaB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis, suppresses tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced invasion, and blocks the proliferation of tumor cells, all activities known to be regulated by NF-kappaB. Diosgenin suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation as determined by DNA binding, activation of IkappaBalpha kinase, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation through inhibition of Akt activation. NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression was also abrogated by diosgenin. TNF-induced expression of NF-kappaB-regulated gene products involved in cell proliferation (cyclin D1, COX-2, c-myc), antiapoptosis (IAP1, Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Bfl-1/A1, TRAF1 and cFLIP), and invasion (MMP-9) were also downregulated by the saponin. Diosgenin also potentiated the apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents. Overall, our results suggest that diosgenin suppresses proliferation, inhibits invasion, and suppresses osteoclastogenesis through inhibition of NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression and enhances apoptosis induced by cytokines and chemotherapeutic agents.

Publication Types:  PMID: 16331273 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

74.Antioxidant properties of germinated fenugreek seeds.

Dixit P, Ghaskadbi S, Mohan H, Devasagayam TP.

Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, India.

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is used as a spice, vegetable and a medicinal plant. Since antioxidant properties have been linked to health benefits of natural products, such properties were studied in germinated fenugreek seeds which are considered to be more beneficial than dried seeds. Different fractions of the germinated seeds were used to determine their antioxidant potential at different levels. The assays employed were ferric reducing antioxidant power, radical scavenging by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferrylmyoglobin/2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, pulse radiolysis, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial preparations from rat liver. An aqueous fraction of fenugreek exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared with other fractions. As the quantity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds can be related to antioxidant activity, the contents from these extracts were measured. HPLC analysis was carried out to detect polyphenols, flavonoids and other components. This study reveals significant antioxidant activity in germinated fenugreek seeds which may be due partly to the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols.

Publication Types: PMID: 16317656 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

75.Probable role of spinal purinoceptors in the analgesic effect of Trigonella foenum (TFG) leaves extract.

Parvizpur A, Ahmadiani A, Kamalinejad M.

Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19835-355, Tehran, Iran.

In our previous work, we demonstrated that Trigonella foenum (TFG) leaves extract can exert analgesic effects in both formalin (F.T.) and tail flick (T.F.) tests. Spinal serotonergic system, but not endogenous opioid system, was involved in TFG induced analgesia (in the second phase of formalin test). Some reports concern the similarity between NSAIDs and TFG extract in many pharmacological effects or the interaction between NSAIDs and purinergic system; so the present study was designed to investigate the relationship between TFG extract and purinergic system or the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX). We examined the effect of TFG extract on: (1) the response of rabbit platelets to ADP induced aggregation, (2) the contraction of mouse vas deferens induced by alpha,beta-Me-ATP (a P(2) receptor agonist; this receptor mediates the rapid phase of ADP- and ATP-evoked influx of Ca(2+) through a non-specific cation channel in platelets), (3) alpha,beta-Me-ATP induced hyperalgesia in tail flick test in male rats and (4) the specific inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. Our results showed that TFG extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, 3 mg/ml) inhibited ADP (10(-5) mol) induced platelet aggregation (IC(50)=1.28 mg/ml). alpha,beta-Me-ATP (30 microM) induced isometric contraction in vas deferens while suramin (a P(2) receptor antagonist, 50, 150, 300 microM) or TFG extract (0.5, 1, 2, 3 mg/ml) inhibited this effect significantly (IC(50) were 91.07 microM and 1.57 mg/ml, respectively). Moreover, alpha,beta-Me-ATP (3 microg/rat, i.t.) induced hyperalgesia in tail flick test, but it was prevented by co-injection of alpha,beta-Me-ATP with suramin (120 microg/rat, i.t.) or TFG extract (1mg/rat, i.t.). Effective concentrations of TFG extract in the above mentioned experiments did not inhibit COX enzymes in EIA tests. In conclusion, these results indicate that the blocking of spinal purinoceptors may contribute in the analgesic effect of TFG leaves extract.

Publication Types: PMID: 16298092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

76.Modulation of glucose transporter (GLUT4) by vanadate and Trigonella in alloxan-diabetic rats.

Mohammad S, Taha A, Bamezai RN, Baquer NZ.

School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India.

Oral administration of vanadate is an effective treatment for diabetes in animal models. However, vanadate exerts these effects at high doses and several toxic effects are produced. Low doses of vanadate are relatively safe but are unable to elicit any antidiabetic effect. The present study explored the prospect of using low doses of vanadate in combination with Trigonella seed powder (TSP) to evaluate their antidiabetic effect in alloxan-diabetic rats. Alloxan-diabetic rats were treated with insulin, vanadate, TSP and vanadate and TSP in combination for 3 weeks. The effect of these antidiabetic compounds was examined on general physiological parameters and distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Treatment of alloxan-diabetic rats with insulin, vanadate, TSP and vanadate in combination with TSP revived normoglycemia and restored the disturbances in the distribution of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. TSP treatment was only partially effective in the restoration of diabetic alterations. The treatment of diabetic rats with combined doses of vanadate and TSP was most effective in the normalization of plasma glucose levels and correction of altered GLUT4 distribution.

Publication Types: PMID: 16289562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

77.4-hydroxyisoleucine an unusual amino acid as antidyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent.

Narender T, Puri A, Shweta, Khaliq T, Saxena R, Bhatia G, Chandra R.

Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India. tnarender@rediffmail.com

Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is an annual herbaceous plant. From the seeds of T. foenum-graecum an unusual amino acid, 4-hydroxyisoleucine 5, has been isolated, which significantly decreased the plasma triglyceride levels by 33% (P<0.002), total cholesterol (TC) by 22% (P<0.02), and free fatty acids by 14%, accompanied by an increase in HDL-C/TC ratio by 39% in the dyslipidemic hamster model.

Publication Types: PMID: 16246556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78.Protective effects of various antioxidants during ischemia-reperfusion in the rat retina.

Dilsiz N, Sahaboglu A, Yildiz MZ, Reichenbach A.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Harran University, Osmanbey Kampusu, Sanliurfa, Turkey. ndilsiz@hotmail.com

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is thought to be a major cause of retinal injury after I/R. The present study was aimed at investigating the protective role of antioxidant application. METHODS: Four commonly used antioxidants (vitamin E=alpha tocopherol, lutein, fenugreek=Trigonella foenum-graecum and germander=Teucrium multicaule) were applied in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the right retinae of 51 adult pigmented rats. Each of the antioxidants was administered every 6 h, beginning 6 h before the ischemia. After 60 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion, we assayed (1) oxidative damage by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), (2) apoptosis by measuring activated caspase-3 (using immunoblots), and (3) intrinsic antioxidative capacity by measuring glutathione (GSH) levels in the retinae. RESULTS: In the order of lutein>Trigonella>vitamin E>Teucrium, all four compounds were effective in preventing retinal damage by I/R, as (1) they significantly decreased the formation of MDA (8.83, 16.48, 17.24, 18.5 nmol/100 mg tissue wet weight, respectively) compared with I/R without protection (23.29 nmol/100 mg tissue wet weight; controls: 8.0 nmol/100 mg tissue wet weight); (2) they significantly inhibited the activation of caspase-3 [0.01, 0.02, 0,02, and 0.04 arbitrary units (AU), respectively, versus control, 0.0, and I/R, 0.08 AU]; and (3) they significantly decelerated the loss of GSH (from control levels of 36.04 nmol/100 mg tissue wet weight) to 30.4, 15.98, 18.1, 15.02 nmol/100 mg tissue wet weight, respectively (lutein, Trigonella, vitamin E, Teucrium), compared with unprotected I/R (12.84 nmol/100 mg tissue wet weight). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that lutein, Trigonella, Teucrium and vitamin E exert protection against in vivo retinal I/R injury in rats; this may recommend these compounds (in particular, lutein) for clinical use in patients with different types of ocular I/R injuries.

Publication Types: PMID: 16205934 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

79.Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains.

Siddiqui MR, Taha A, Moorthy K, Hussain ME, Basir SF, Baquer NZ.

School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India.

Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and sodium orthovanadate (SOV) have been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, SOV exerts hypoglycemic effects at relatively high doses with several toxic effects. We used low doses of vanadate in combination with TSP and evaluated their antidiabetic effects on anti-oxidant enzymes and membrane-linked functions in diabetic rat brains. In rats, diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body wt.) and they were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV with 5% TSP for 21 days. Blood glucose levels, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+/K+ ATPase, membrane lipid peroxidation and fluidity were determined in different fractions of whole brain after 21 days of treatment. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P less than 0.001), decreased activities of SOD, catalase and Na+/K+ ATPase (P less than 0.01, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01), increased levels of GPx and MDA (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.001) and decreased membrane fluidity (P less than 0.01). Treatment with different antidiabetic compounds restored the above-altered parameters. Combined dose of Trigonella and vanadate was found to be the most effective treatment in normalizing these alterations. Lower doses of vanadate could be used in combination with TSP to effectively counter diabetic alterations without any toxic effects.

Publication Types: PMID: 16184010 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

80.Restoration of ultrastructural and biochemical changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rat sciatic nerve on treatment with Na3VO4 and Trigonella--a promising antidiabetic agent.

Preet A, Gupta BL, Siddiqui MR, Yadava PK, Baquer NZ.

Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Vanadium has been reported to have broad pharmacological activity both in vitro and in vivo. Vanadium compound, sodium orthovanadate, Na3VO4, is well known for its hypoglycaemic effects. However, Na3VO4 exerts these effects at relatively high doses (0.6 mg/ml) and exhibit several toxic effects. In the present study lower doses of Na3VO4 (0.2 mg/ml) are combined with Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP), another hypoglycaemic agent, to reduce its toxicity without compromising its antidiabetic potential. The efficacy of the lower doses of Na3VO4 has been investigated in restoring the altered glucose metabolism and histological structure in the sciatic nerves in 21 and 60 days alloxan diabetic rats. A portion of the glucose was found to be channelled from the normal glycolytic route to polyol pathway, evident by the reduced hexokinase activity and increased polyol pathway enzymes aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activity causing accumulation of sorbitol and fructose in diabetic conditions. Ultrastructural observation of the sciatic nerve showed extensive demylination and axonal loss after eight weeks of diabetes induction. Blood glucose levels increased in diabetic rats were normalized with the lower dose of vanadium and Trigonella treatment. The treatment of the diabetic rats with vanadium and Trigonella prevented the activation of the polyol pathway and sugar accumulations. The sciatic nerves were also protected against the structural abnormalities found in diabetes with Trigonella foenum graecum as well as Na3VO4. Results suggest that lower doses of Na3VO4 may be used in combination with TSP as an efficient antidiabetic agent to effectively control the long-term complications of diabetes in tissues like peripheral nerve.

Publication Types: PMID: 16180085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81.The emergence of embryos from hard seeds is related to the structure of the cell walls of the micropylar endosperm, and not to endo-beta-mannanase activity.

Gong X, Bassel GW, Wang A, Greenwood JS, Bewley JD.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Axelrod Building, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Seeds of carob, Chinese senna, date and fenugreek are hard due to thickened endosperm cell walls containing mannan polymers. How the radicle is able penetrate these thickened walls to complete seed germination is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to determine if radicle emergence is related to the production of endo-beta-mannanase to weaken the mannan-rich cell walls of the surrounding endosperm region, and/or if the endosperm structure itself is such that it is weaker in the region through which the radicle must penetrate. METHODS: Activity of endo-beta-mannanase in the endosperm and embryo was measured using a gel assay during and following germination, and the structure of the endosperm in juxtaposition to the radicle, and surrounding the cotyledons was determined using fixation, sectioning and light microscopy. KEY RESULTS: The activity of endo-beta-mannanase, the major enzyme responsible for galactomannan cell wall weakening increased in activity only after emergence of the radicle from the seed. Thickened cell walls were present in the lateral endosperm in the hard-seeded species studied, but there was little to no thickening in the micropylar endosperm except in date seeds. In this species, a ring of thin cells was visible in the micropylar endosperm and surrounding an operculum which was pushed open by the expanding radicle to complete germination. CONCLUSIONS: The micropylar endosperm presents a lower physical constraint to the completion of germination than the lateral endosperm, and hence its structure is predisposed to permit radicle protrusion.

Publication Types: PMID: 16176942 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

82.Supplementation of fenugreek leaves reduces oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Annida B, Stanely Mainzen Prince P.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India. psmprince@rediffmail.com

Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is a traditional medicinal plant of the Leguminoseae family in India. The antioxidant effect of fenugreek leaves was evaluated in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. The antioxidant effect was evaluated by estimating thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and reduced glutathione and measuring the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, heart, and kidney in diabetic rats. Fenugreek leaf powder supplementation significantly lowered lipid peroxidation and significantly increased the antioxidant system in diabetic rats. The effect at a dose of 1 g/kg of body weight of fenugreek leaf powder was similar to that of glibenclamide. Insulin restores all the parameters to near normal values. Thus, fenugreek leaf powder reduces oxidative stress in experimental diabetes.

Publication Types: PMID: 16176151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

83.Modulatory effect of fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Kumar GS, Shetty AK, Salimath PV.

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore-570 020, India. paramahans1954@yahoo.com

To elucidate the effect of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric (10%) on disaccharidases activities, the specific activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases viz., sucrase, maltase and lactase were measured in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes and amelioration of these activities during diabetes was clearly visible by supplementing fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric in the diet. However during diabetes renal disaccharidases activities were significantly lower than those in the control rats. Fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric supplementations were beneficial in alleviating the reduction in maltase activity during diabetes, however not much change in the activities of sucrase and lactase was observed upon feeding. This positive influence of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases clearly indicates their beneficial role in the management of diabetes.

Publication Types: PMID: 16021836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

84.The hypoglycaemic activity of fenugreek seed extract is mediated through the stimulation of an insulin signalling pathway.

Vijayakumar MV, Singh S, Chhipa RR, Bhat MK.

National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, India.

The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of a dialysed fenugreek seed extract (FSE) was studied in alloxan (AXN)-induced diabetic mice and found to be comparable to that of insulin (1.5 U kg(-1)). FSE also improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance in normal mice. The mechanism by which FSE attenuated hyperglycaemia was investigated in vitro. FSE stimulated glucose uptake in CHO-HIRc-mycGLUT4eGFP cells in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was shown to be mediated by the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) from the intracellular space to the plasma membrane. These effects of FSE on GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake were inhibited by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, and bisindolylmaleimide 1, a protein kinase C (PKC)-specific inhibitor.In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, FSE also induces tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins including the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 and p85 subunit of PI3-K, in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and human hepatoma cells, HepG2. However, unlike insulin, FSE had no effect on protein kinase B (Akt) activation. These results suggest that in vivo the hypoglycaemic effect of FSE is mediated, at least in part, by the activation of an insulin signalling pathway in adipocytes and liver cells.

Publication Types: PMID: 15980869 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1576255

85.Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

Handa T, Yamaguchi K, Sono Y, Yazawa K.

Laboratory of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods Science, Graduate School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan, Tokyo, Japan.

It was found that fenugreek seed extract reduced the body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet in obese mice. The extract decreased plasma triglyceride gain induced by oil administration. The major component of the extract, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, also decreased plasma triglyceride gain. Consequently, fenugreek seed extract is expected to prevent the obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

PMID: 15973051 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

86.Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate.

Grover JK, Vats V, Yadav SS.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

Insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) is now recognized as a major contributor to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Sedentary lifestyle, consumption of energy-rich diet, obesity, longer lifespan, etc., are important reasons for this rise (J. R. Turtle, Int J Clin Prac 2000; 113: 23). Aqueous extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS) and Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn seeds (FG) have been shown to exert hypoglycaemic/antihyperglycaemic effect in experimental as well as clinical setting. As no work has been carried out so far to assess the effect of PM, OS and FG on fructose-induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, we undertook this study to assess whether these extracts attenuate the metabolic alteration induced by fructose-rich diet in rats. Five groups of rats (eight each) were fed chow diet, 66% fructose diet, 66% fructose diet + PM leaves extract (1 g/kg/day), 66% fructose diet + OS leaves extract (200 mg/kg/day) and 66% fructose diet + FG seeds extract (2 g/kg/day) for 30 days. Fructose feeding to normal rats for 30 days significantly increased serum glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels in comparison with control. Treatment with all the three plants extract for 30 days significantly lowered the serum glucose levels in comparison with control group. However, only PM extract substantially prevented hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, while OS and FG had no significant effect on these parameters. Results of this study, in addition to previous clinical benefits of PM seen in NIDDM subjects, are suggestive of usefulness of PM bark (Vijayasar) in insulin resistance, the associated disorder of type 2 diabetes; however, OS and FG may not be useful. Though several antidiabetic principles (-epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupin and pterostilbene) have been identified in the PM, yet future studies are required to certify their efficacy and safety before clinical scenario.

PMID: 15955128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

87.Chemopreventive activities of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) against breast cancer.

Amin A, Alkaabi A, Al-Falasi S, Daoud SA.

Biology Department, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. a.amin@uaeu.ac.ae

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional therapies cause serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Cancer control may therefore benefit from the potential that resides in alternative therapies. There is thus an increasing demand to utilize alternative concepts or approaches to the prevention of cancer. In this report, we show a potential protective effect of Fenugreek seeds against 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats. At 200 mg/kg b.wt., Fenugreek seeds' extract significantly inhibited the DMBA-induced mammary hyperplasia and decreased its incidence. Epidemiological studies also implicate apoptosis as a mechanism that might mediate the Fenugreek's anti-breast cancer protective effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study that suggests significant chemopreventive effects of Fenugreek seeds against breast cancer.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15936223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

88.Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses.

Preet A, Gupta BL, Yadava PK, Baquer NZ.

Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory and Applied Molecular Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India.

Vanadium compounds are potent in controlling elevated blood glucose levels in experimentally induced diabetes. However the toxicity associated with vanadium limits its role as therapeutic agent for diabetic treatment. A vanadium compound sodium orthovanadate (SOV) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats in lower doses in combination with Trigonella foenum graecum, a well-known hypoglycemic agent used in traditional Indian medicines. The effect of this combination was studied on lens morphology and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Lens, an insulin-independent tissue, was found severely affected in diabetes showing visual signs of cataract. Alterations in the activities of glucose metabolizing enzymes (hexokinase, aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) besides the levels of related metabolites, [sorbitol, fructose, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH)] were observed in the lenses from diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with insulin (2 IU/day), SOV (0.6 mg/ml), T. f. graecum seed powder (TSP, 5%) and TSP (5%) in combination with lowered dose of vanadium SOV (0.2 mg/ml), for a period of 3 weeks. The activity of the enzymes, hexokinase, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase was significantly increased whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase decreased significantly in lenses from 3 week diabetic rats. Significant increase in accumulation of metabolites, sorbitol, fructose, glucose was found in diabetic lenses. TBARS measure of peroxidation increased whereas the levels of antioxidant GSH decreased significantly in diabetic condition. Insulin restored the levels of altered enzyme activities and metabolites almost to control levels. Sodium orthovanadate (0.6 mg/ml) and Trigonella administered separately to diabetic animals could partially reverse the diabetic changes, metabolic and morphological, while vanadate in lowered dose in combination with Trigonella was found to be the most effective in restoring the altered lens metabolism and morphological appearance in diabetes. It may be concluded that vanadate at lowered doses administered in combination with Trigonella was the most effective in controlling the altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic lenses, these being significant factors involved in the development of diabetic complications, that reflects in the reduced lens opacity.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15886458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

89.Determination of major carotenoids in a few Indian leafy vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Lakshminarayana R, Raju M, Krishnakantha TP, Baskaran V.

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020, India.

Leafy vegetables [Basella rubra L., Peucedanum sowa Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Spinacia oleracea L., Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir., and Raphanus sativus L.] that are commonly used by the rural population in India were evaluated in terms of their main carotenoid pattern. The extracted carotenoids were purified by open column chromatography (OCC) on a neutral alumina column to verify their identity by their characteristic UV-visible absorption spectra. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 column with UV-visible photodiode array detection under isocratic conditions was used for quantification of isolated carotenoids. Acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane (60:20:20 v/v/v) containing 0.1% ammonium acetate was used as a mobile phase. The major carotenoids identified by both methods were lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Among the carotenoids identified, lutein and beta-carotene levels were found to be higher in these leafy vegetables. Results show that P. sowa and S. oleracea are rich sources of lutein (77-92 mg/100 g of dry wt) and beta-carotene (36-44 mg/100 g of dry wt) compared with other leafy vegetables. The purity of carotenoids eluted by OCC was clarified by HPLC, and they were found to be 92% +/- 3% for neoxanthin, 94% +/- 2% for violaxanthin, 97% +/-2% for lutein and zeaxanthin, and 90% +/- 3% for beta-carotene. It could be recommended to use P. sowa and S. oleracea as rich sources of lutein and beta-carotene for health benefits. The OCC method proposed is relatively simple and provides purified carotenoids for feeding trials.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15826027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

90.Characterization of hypoglycemiant plants by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

Zucchi OL, Moreira S, de Jesus EF, Neto HS, Salvador MJ.

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Depto. Física e Química, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brasil. olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

In this work, synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SRTXRF) was used to determine trace elements in eight hypoglycemiant plants (Trigonella foenum graecum, Panax ginseng, Pfaffia paniculata, Myrcia speciosa, Zea mays, Harpagophytum procumbens, Syzygium jambolona, and Bauhinia forficate). The elements P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr were detected in all medicinal plants investigated, whereas Si, S, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Nb, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Hg, and Pb were detected only in some of the samples. The concentration of elements in hypoglycemiant plants varied from 0.15 microg/g of Co to 3.0 x 10(4) microg/g of K and the mean of experimental limit of detection for these elements were 0.14 and 3.6 microg/g, respectively.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15784959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

91.Effect of fenugreek, onion and garlic on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Jelodar GA, Maleki M, Motadayen MH, Sirus S.

Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71345, Iran. jelodar@shirazu.ac.ir

BACKGROUND: Many traditional treatments have been recommended in the alternative system of medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus; however, the mechanism of most of the herbals used has not been defined. AIMS: This study was carried out to clarify the effect of fenugreek, garlic and onion, recommended in Persian folklore medicine as beneficial in the treatment of diabetes, on blood glucose and their possible effect on pancreatic tissue. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 out of 25 adult male albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 185 mg/kg BW alloxan. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, three of which were fed a diet containing 12.5% BW Allium sativum (garlic), Allium cepa (onion) or Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) for 15 days. The fourth group (positive control) received an ordinary diet. The remaining non-diabetic rats (negative control group) received neither alloxan nor the mentioned plants. Following consumption of plants, blood glucose was measured every day and on the last day the pancreas were removed and stained with H&E and Gomeri aldehyde fuchsin (GAF). Morphology of the pancreatic sections and the following morphometric factors were studied: volume density of B cells, volume density of islets, percent of B cells, number of islets per square millimeter, average area of islets and average volume density of B cell in whole pancreas. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to evaluate the data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that only garlic was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control group (P<0.05). In the control positive group all the mentioned morphometric factors were significantly changed in comparison with the control negative (normal health) group, but the same did not show significant change between treated and untreated diabetics.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15738612 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


92.The addition of fenugreek extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum) to glucose feeding increases muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise.

Ruby BC, Gaskill SE, Slivka D, Harger SG.

Department of Health and Human Performance, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812-1825, USA. brent.ruby@mso.umt.edu

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting an oral supplement containing 4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-OH-Ile, isolated from fenugreek seeds [Trigonella foenum-graecum]) with a glucose beverage on rates of post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis in trained male cyclists. Following an overnight fast (12 hr), subjects completed a 90-minute glycogen depletion ride after which a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis. Immediately and 2 hours after the muscle biopsy, subjects ingested either an oral dose of dextrose (Glu) (1.8 g.kg BW(-1)) or 4-OH-Ile supplement (Glu+4-OH-Ile, including 2.0 mg.kg(-1) 4-OH-Ile with the same oral dose of dextrose) with a second muscle biopsy 4 hours after exercise. Post exercise muscle glycogen concentration was similar for both trials. Overall, there was a significant increase in glucose and insulin concentrations from time 0 throughout the majority of the 4-hour recovery period, with no significant differences between the two trials at any time point. Although muscle glycogen concentration significantly increased from immediately post exercise to 4 hr of recovery for both trials, the net rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis was 63% greater during Glu+4-OH-Ile (10.6+/-3.3 vs. 6.5+/-2.6 g.kg wet wt.(-1).hr.(-1) for the Glu+4-OH-Ile and Glu trials, respectively). These data demonstrate that when the fenugreek extract supplement (4-OH-Ile) is added to a high oral dose of dextrose, rates of post-exercise glycogen resynthesis are enhanced above dextrose alone.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15719265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

93.Nutritional evaluation of wheat-fenugreek blends for product making.

Hooda S, Jood S.

Department of Foods & Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India.

Wheat flour was separately substituted with fenugreek flour (raw, soaked, and germinated) at 5-20% levels for product making. Nutrient analysis of the blends, product development, and their acceptability were carried out. Replacement of wheat flour with fenugreek flour increased the protein, fat, lysine, minerals, and dietary fibre contents proportionately to the level of substitution. Among the composite flours, the blends containing germinated fenugreek flour were found superior in nutritional quality compared to others. However, products, viz., bread, biscuits, noodles, and macaroni prepared from the wheat-fenugreek blends at 10, 15, and 20% levels, were found organoleptically acceptable.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15678723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

94.Polyphenol-rich extract of fenugreek seeds protect erythrocytes from oxidative damage.

Kaviarasan S, Vijayalakshmi K, Anuradha CV.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

A polyphenol-rich extract from the seeds of fenugreek was evaluated for its protective effect against hydrogen peroxide(H202)-induced oxidation in normal and diabetic human erythrocytes (RBCs). RBCs, preincubated with increasing amounts of fenugreek seed extract and challenged with H2O2, were analyzed for hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. RBCs from diabetic subjects were more susceptible to oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation than those from normal subjects. However preincubation with the polyphenol-rich extract significantly reduced the oxidative modifications in both the groups. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was concentration-dependent up to 100 microl of extract, which contained 0.75mM gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the potent antioxidant properties of the fenugreek seeds.

PMID: 15678722 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

95.Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder protects against histopathological abnormalities in tissues of diabetic rats.

Thakran S, Siddiqui MR, Baquer NZ.

Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Trigonella foenum graecum is a well-known hypoglycemic agent used in traditional Indian medicines. It was previously reported that oral administration of its seed powder for 3 weeks to alloxan diabetic rats stabilized glucose homeostasis and free radical metabolism in liver and kidney. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of 3 weeks alloxan induced diabetes on the histological structure and function of liver and kidney and the protective effect of T. foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) oral administration to the diabetic rats utilizing enzyme analysis and light and transmission electron microscopy. The activity of the enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly higher whereas the activity of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase enzyme was significantly lower in liver and kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed liver degenerative and early nephropathic changes in diabetic rats. Ultrastructure of the diabetic liver revealed a reduction in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and swelling of mitochondria in the hepatocytes. TSP treatment to the diabetic rats effectively prevented the alteration in the activities of the two enzymes and partially prevented the structural abnormalities thus suggesting a protective effect of TSP on the liver and kidney of the diabetic rats. The role of TSP in reversing the diabetic state at the cellular level besides the metabolic normalization further proves its potential as an antidiabetic agent.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15646037 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

96.Larvicidal activity of plant extracts used alone and in combination with known synthetic larvicidal agents against Aedes aegypti.

Harve G, Kamath V.

Department of Zoonosis, Haffkine Institute, Mumbai 400012, India.

Larvicidal activity of acetone and petroleum ether extracts of four plants Murraya koenigii, Coriandrum sativum, Ferula asafoetida, Trigonella foenum graceum and synthetic larvicides Fenthion and Temephos used alone and in combination was carried out against A. aegypti larvae under laboratory conditions. Optimum values were found out by using different concentrations of each plant (ranged 25 ppm-900 ppm) and both synthetic larvicides (ranged 0.01-7.5 ppm). The synergistic study was carried out by using 0.05 ppm of Temephos and Fenthion with 25ppm of M. koenigii, F. asafetida, T. foenum graceum and 100 ppm of C. sativum. All the plants showed potential synergistic activity although showed comparatively poor larvicidal activity when tested individually.

PMID: 15623234 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

97.Breeding system in a population of Trigonella balansae (Leguminosae).

Nair RM, Dundas IS, Wallwork M, Verlin DC, Waterhouse L, Dowling K.

South Australian Research & Development Institute (SARDI), GPO Box 397, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. madhavannair.ram@saugov.sa.gov.au

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although some taxonomic studies in the genus Trigonella have been conducted, there has been no concerted effort to study the breeding system. This paper examines the floral structure and pollination system in a population of T. balansae, an annual pasture legume. METHODS: Floral morphology, hand and vector pollination, stigma receptivity, pollen tube growth, using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy, were conducted. KEY RESULTS: Measurements of floral structure from before to after anthesis indicates an inability for T. balansae to self-pollinate and a requirement for an external vector to effectively transfer pollen from the anthers onto the stigmas of this species. Seed set can be obtained by hand or honeybee manipulation of T. balansae flowers. CONCLUSIONS: Trigonella balansae is a self-compatible species, but which requires vectors such as honeybees to bring about pollination.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15489252 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

98.Spinal serotonergic system is partially involved in antinociception induced by Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) leaf extract.

Parvizpur A, Ahmadiani A, Kamalinejad M.

Department of Pharmacology, Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19835-355, Tehran, IR, Iran.

It has been reported that Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) extract exerts analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects in different experimental models. The major objective of this paper was to investigate the site and mechanism of the analgesia induced by Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. We studied the analgesic effects of different doses of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract after i.p., i.t. and i.c.v. administration in formalin test, using male NMRI rats (200-250 g). Trigonella foenum-graecum extract showed analgesic effects in i.p. (1 g/kg) and i.t. (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/rat) (P < 0.05 in all groups) but not in i.c.v. (1 and 3 mg/rat) administrations. Based on the similarities between the effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the role of 5-HT system in analgesic effects of NSAIDs, we tried to investigate the role of spinal 5-HT system in analgesic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. After lesioning of spinal 5-HT system by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), it was shown that the analgesic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (0.5 and 3 mg/rat) in the second phase of formalin test, was abolished completely and reduced relatively after using a low-dose (0.5 mg/rat) and a high-dose (3 mg/rat), respectively (P < 0.05). So, the antinociception partially remained (P < 0.05) after using the latter dose. Meanwhile, administration of naloxone (2mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on the Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (1 g/kg, i.p.) analgesia. In conclusion, this study confirms the central action of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract and that spinal 5-HT system is partially involved in the analgesia induced by it in the second phase of formalin test and also indicates for co-existence of other analgesic mechanism(s).

Publication Types:

PMID: 15374601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

99.Changes in beta-carotene and ascorbic acid content of fresh amaranth and fenugreek leaves during storage by low cost technique.

Negi PS, Roy SK.

Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India.

Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and their shelf life depends on duration and conditions of storage. A low cost storage structure was used to extend the shelf life of amaranth and fenugreek and their quality was evaluated on the basis of retention of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll during storage. Losses of beta-carotene ranged from 46.5 to 85.0% for amaranth and 24.0 to 73.0% for fenugreek depending on duration and conditions of storage. Similarly ascorbic acid retention varied from 9-32% for amaranth and 23-80% for fenugreek. Results showed that the degradation of quality parameters was faster at ambient conditions and packaging of leaves in low density polyethylene bags was beneficial in improving shelf life and nutritive value. Low cost storage structure was similar to low temperature storage for retention of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, chlorophyll content and enhancement of shelf life.

PMID: 15366263 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

100.Genotoxicity testing of a fenugreek extract.

Flammang AM, Cifone MA, Erexson GL, Stankowski LF Jr.

Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories, 624 Cleveland Ave, Columbus, OH 43215-1724, USA. ann.flammang@abbott.com

Fenugreek seeds have been used in traditional medicines as a remedy for diabetes. Rich in protein, fenugreek seeds contain the unique major free amino acid 4-hydroxyisoleucine (4-OH-Ile), which has been characterized as one of the active ingredients for blood glucose control. Current use of fenugreek in foodstuff has been limited to its role as a flavoring agent, and not as an ingredient to help mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the potential genotoxicity of a fenugreek seed extract (THL), containing a minimum of 40% 4-OH-ILE, was evaluated using the standard battery of tests (reverse mutation assay; mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay; mouse micronucleus assay) recommended by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for food ingredients. THL was determined not to be genotoxic under the conditions of the tested genetic toxicity battery. The negative assay results provide support that addition of THL to foodstuffs formulated for people with diabetes is expected to be safe. A wide safety margin is established, as anticipated doses are small compared to the doses administered in the assays.

PMID: 15350674 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

101.Phenolics, their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in dark germinated fenugreek sprouts in response to peptide and phytochemical elicitors.

Randhir R, Lin YT, Shetty K.

Department of Food Science, Chenoweth Laboratory, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

The phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP) was stimulated in fenugreek sprouts through the pentose phosphate and shikimate pathway, by natural elicitors such as Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH), Lactoferrin (LF) and Oregano Extract (OE). Among treatments 0.5 ml/L FPH elicited fenugreek sprouts had the highest phenolic content of 0.75 mg/g FW on day 3 of germination which was approximately 25 % higher than control on the same day. The antioxidant activity estimated by beta-carotene assay was highest for LF and OE elicited sprouts on day 2 and 4, respectively with an antioxidant protection factor (APF) of 1.47 for both. In all treatments and control, higher antioxidant activity was observed during early germination, which correlates to higher phenolic content, suggesting that initially phenolics are antioxidant in nature. This increased activity also correlates with high guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity indicating that the polymerized phenolics required for lignification with growth have antioxidant function. The antioxidant activity as estimated by beta-carotene and 1,1,-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assays indicate that fenugreek sprout extract can quench the superoxide free radical and also possibly scavenge the hydrogen peroxide generated in the reaction mix. OE elicited the highest levo dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA) synthesis of 1.59 mg/g FW, followed by FPH with 1.56 mg/g FW and LF 1.5 mg/g FW all on day 2 which was 24.5%, 23 % and 20 % higher than control, respectively. Higher L-DOPA content was observed in the elicited fenugreek sprouts during early germination, correlating to high phenolics and antioxidant activity, suggesting that L-DOPA also contributes to the high antioxidant activity. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was higher during early germination (day 1-4) and gradually decreased during later stages (day 5-8) for all treatments and control. The early increase is possibly due to the carbohydrate mobilization from the cotyledons directed towards the high nutrient requirements of the growing sprout. As mobilization occurred, an allosteric feedback inhibition by sugar-phosphates is suggested, as lower G6PDH activity was observed on days 6-8. The elevated levels of GPX during early germination coincide with the higher phenolic synthesis; SOD activity and antioxidant activity suggests the elevated production and quenching of reactive oxygen species by elicitation. High antimicrobial activity against peptic ulcer-linked Helicobacter pylori was observed in the fenugreek sprout extract from control and LF treatments only. We hypothesized that in fenugreek sprouts, simple free phenolics that are less polymerized have more antimicrobial function.

PMID: 15331344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

102.Diosgenin, a steroid saponin of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in F344 rats and induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

Raju J, Patlolla JM, Swamy MV, Rao CV.

Division of Nutritional Carcinogenesis, Institute for Cancer Prevention, American Health Foundation Cancer Center, 1 Dana Road, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.

Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) is traditionally used to treat disorders such as diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammation, and gastrointestinal ailments. Recent studies suggest that fenugreek and its active constituents may possess anticarcinogenic potential. We evaluated the preventive efficacy of dietary fenugreek seed and its major steroidal saponin constituent, diosgenin, on azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis during initiation and promotion stages. Preneoplastic colonic lesions or aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were chosen as end points. In addition, we assessed the mechanism of tumor growth inhibition of diosgenin in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. To evaluate the effect of the test agent during the initiation and postinitiation stages, 7-week-old male F344 rats were fed experimental diets containing 0% or 1% fenugreek seed powder (FSP) or 0.05% or 0.1% diosgenin for 1 week and were injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight). Effects during the promotional stage were studied by feeding 1% FSP or 0.1% diosgenin 4 weeks after the azoxymethane injections. Rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after azoxymethane injection, and their colons were evaluated for ACF. We found that, by comparison with control, continuous feeding of 1% FSP and 0.05% and 0.1% diosgenin suppressed total colonic ACF up to 32%, 24%, and 42%, respectively (P < or = 0.001 to 0.0001). Dietary FSP at 1% and diosgenin at 0.1% fed only during the promotional stage also inhibited total ACF up to 33% (P < or = 0.001) and 39% (P < or = 0.0001), respectively. Importantly, continuous feeding of 1% FSP or 0.05% or 0.1% diosgenin reduced the number of multicrypt foci by 38%, 20%, and 36% by comparison with the control assay (P < or = 0.001). In addition, 1% FSP or 0.1% diosgenin fed during the promotional stage caused a significant reduction (P < or = 0.001) of multicrypt foci compared with control. Dietary diosgenin at 0.1% and 0.05% inhibited total colonic ACF and multicrypt foci formation in a dose-dependent manner. Results from the in vitro experiments indicated that diosgenin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, diosgenin induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells at least in part by inhibition of bcl-2 and by induction of caspase-3 protein expression. On the basis of these findings, the fenugreek constituent diosgenin seems to have potential as a novel colon cancer preventive agent.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15298963 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

103.Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Annida B, Stanely Mainzen Prince P.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of fenugreek leaves in diabetes mellitus. Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal untreated rats; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats; STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (0.5 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (1 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + glibenclamide (600 microg/kg of body weight); and STZ-induced rats + insulin (6 units/kg of body weight). Rats were made diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Fenugreek leaves were supplemented in the diet daily to diabetic rats for 45 days, and food intake was recorded daily. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were determined in serum, liver, heart, and kidney. Our results show that blood glucose and serum and tissue lipids were elevated in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lowered the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

PMID: 15298761 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

104.Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone.

Rababah TM, Hettiarachchy NS, Horax R.

Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 North Young Avenue, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72704, USA.

The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone, were determined. Grape seed and green tea were analyzed for their phenolic constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolics of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/g dry material. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts determined by conjugated diene measurement of methyl linoleate were 3.4-86.3%. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using chicken fat by an oxidative stability instrument (4.6-10.2 h of induction time) followed a similar trend in antioxidant activity as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Seven phenolics in grape seed and green tea extracts were identified that ranged from 15.38 to 1158.49 and 18.3 to 1087.02 mg/100 g of extract, respectively. Plant extracts such as green tea and grape seed extracts can be used to retard lipid oxidation in a variety of food products.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15291494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

105.Effects of sodium-orthovanadate and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds on hepatic and renal lipogenic enzymes and lipid profile during alloxan diabetes.

Yadav UC, Moorthy K, Baquer NZ.

Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India. nzbaquer@hotmail.com

Sodium-orthovanadate (SOV) and seed powder of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn. (common name: fenugreek, family: Fabaceae) (TSP) besides being potential hypoglycemic agents have also been shown to ameliorate altered lipid metabolism during diabetes. This study evaluates the short-term effect of oral administration of SOV and TSP separately and in concert (for 21 days) on total lipid profile and lipogenic enzymes in tissues of alloxan diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed 4-fold increase in blood glucose. The level of total lipids, triglycerides and total cholesterol in blood serum increased significantly during diabetes. During diabetes the level of total lipids increased significantly (P < 0.001) in liver and in kidney by 48% and 55%, respectively, compared to control. Triglycerides level increased by 32% (P < 0.01) in liver and by 51% (P < 0.005) in kidney, respectively, compared to control. Total cholesterol level also increased significantly in both liver and kidney (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). The activities of NADP-linked enzymes; namely glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and the activities of lipogenic enzymes namely ATP-citrate lyase (ATP-CL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were decreased significantly in liver and increased in kidney during diabetes as compared to control. SOV and TSP administration to diabetic animals prevented the development of hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile in plasma and tissues and maintained it near normal. Maximum prevention was observed in the combined treatment with lower dose of SOV (0.2%) after 21 days. We are presenting for the first time effectiveness of combined treatment of SOV and TSP in amelioration of altered lipid metabolism during experimental type-I diabetes.

PMID: 15286407 [PubMed - in process]

106.Assessment of genetic diversity in Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea using ISSR and RAPD markers.

Dangi RS, Lagu MD, Choudhary LB, Ranjekar PK, Gupta VS.

Plant Molecular Biology Group, Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008, Maharashtra State, India. rakheesharma@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND: Various species of genus Trigonella are important from medical and culinary aspect. Among these, Trigonella foenum-graecum is commonly grown as a vegetable. This anti-diabetic herb can lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Another species, Trigonella caerulea is used as food in the form of young seedlings. This herb is also used in cheese making. However, little is known about the genetic variation present in these species. In this report we describe the use of ISSR and RAPD markers to study genetic diversity in both, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea. RESULTS: Seventeen accessions of Trigonella foenum-graecum and nine accessions of Trigonella caerulea representing various countries were analyzed using ISSR and RAPD markers. Genetic diversity parameters (average number of alleles per polymorphic locus, percent polymorphism, average heterozygosity and marker index) were calculated for ISSR, RAPD and ISSR+RAPD approaches in both the species. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA algorithm based on the similarity index values for both Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea. The UPGMA analysis showed that plants from different geographical regions were distributed in different groups in both the species. In Trigonella foenum-graecum accessions from Pakistan and Afghanistan were grouped together in one cluster but accessions from India and Nepal were grouped together in another cluster. However, in both the species accessions from Turkey did not group together and fell in different clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Based on genetic similarity indices, higher diversity was observed in Trigonella caerulea as compared to Trigonella foenum-graecum. The genetic similarity matrices generated by ISSR and RAPD markers in both species were highly correlated (r = 0.78 at p = 0.001 for Trigonella foenum-graecum and r = 0.98 at p = 0.001 for Trigonella caerulea) indicating congruence between these two systems. Implications of these observations in the analysis of genetic diversity and in supporting the possible Center of Origin and/or Diversity for Trigonella are discussed.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15285785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC514543

107.Effect of fenugreek seeds on the fasting blood glucose level in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Mondal DK, Yousuf BM, Banu LA, Ferdousi R, Khalil M, Shamim KM.

Department of Anatomy, Khulna Medical College, Khulna.

In this experiment defatted Trigonella foenumgraecum (fenugreek seeds/methi seeds) has used as the antidiabetogenic herbal medicine. The experiment was carried out in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and BIRDEM from 1996 to 1998 on a total of 58 Long Evans rats of either sex. They were 50-60 days young rats with average body weight 72-174 gm. Among the total, 10 rats were treated with only vehicle called as non-diabetic control rats, 48 rats were treated with Streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 90 mg in 1 ml of citrate buffer solution per kg body weight, among which 20 were diabetics. Ten (1 died, 1 escaped) diabetic rats were again treated with fenugreek called as Fenugreek-treated diabetic rats and the rest 10 diabetic rats were called as diabetic control rats. The change in the mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) level in different groups of rat from day 5 from streptozotocin injection were higher in diabetic control group and in fenugreek-treated diabetic group than in non diabetic control group. The FBG level on day 13 the mean in non-diabetic control group was 5.21 mmol/L. In diabetic control group and in fenugreek-treated diabetic group the mean FBG level were 24.33 mmol/L and 9.89 mmol/L respectively. So, from this experiment it may be concluded that fenugreek decreases the FBG level considerably by improving diabetes mellitus.

PMID: 15284693 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



108.Anti-cataract activity of Pterocarpus marsupium bark and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extract in alloxan diabetic rats.

Vats V, Yadav SP, Biswas NR, Grover JK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 4th Floor, Teaching Block, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India.

Long-term complications are frequently encountered in diabetes mellitus and are difficult to treat. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of three antidiabetic plants on the development of cataract in rats. An aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM, Hindi name: Vijaysar) (1 g kg(-1) day(-1)), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS, Hindi name, Tulsi) (200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn seeds (FG, Hindi name, Methi) (2 g kg(-1) day(-1)) were given to alloxan (120 mg kg(-1)) diabetic rats until the development of cataract. Serum glucose and body weight were monitored at regular intervals while cataract was examined through naked eye as well as slit lamp at 75, 100 and 115 days after alloxan administration. Administration of all the three plant extracts exerted a favorable effect on body weight and blood glucose, the effects were best with PM followed by FG and OS. On the course of cataract development, PM followed by FG exerted anti-cataract effect evident from decreased opacity index while OS failed to produce any anti-cataract effect in spite of significant antihyperglycemic activity.

PMID: 15234767 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


109.Role of selected Indian plants in management of type 2 diabetes: a review.
Saxena A, Vikram NK.

Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. abhasaxena2000@yahoo.com

Type 2 diabetes has become a global epidemic. Modern medicines, despite offering a variety of effective treatment options, can have several adverse effects. Ayurveda, a science that uses herbal medicines extensively, originated in India. Of considerable interest is the adoption of Ayurveda by the mainstream medical system in some European countries (e.g., Hungary), emphasizing this modality is increasing worldwide recognition. From ancient times, some of these herbal preparations have been used in the treatment of diabetes. This paper reviews the accumulated literature for 10 Indian herbs that have antidiabetic activity and that have been scientifically tested. Few of these herbs, such as Momordica charantia, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Trigonella foenum greacum, have been reported to be beneficial for treating type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms such as the stimulating or regenerating effect on beta cells or extrapancreatic effects are proposed for the hypoglycemic action of these herbs.

Publication Types

PMID: 15165418 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

110.Protective effects of selected medicinal plants against protein degradation, lipid peroxidation and deformability loss of oxidatively stressed human erythrocytes.

Suboh SM, Bilto YY, Aburjai TA.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

The effects of seven medicinal plants including Artemisia herba-alba, Ferula hermonis, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Nigella sativa, Teucrium polium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Allium sativum on protein degradation, lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes exposed in vitro to 10 mM H(2)O(2) for 60 min at 37 degrees C have been examined. Preincubation of erythrocytes with Nigella sativa and Allium sativum protected erythrocytes against protein degradation, loss of deformability and increased osmotic fragility caused by H(2)O(2), while the other plants failed to protect erythrocytes against these damages. Artemisia herba-alba did not protect erythrocytes against lipid peroxidation, while Trigonella foenum-graecum unexpectedly increased lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes exposed to H(2)O(2). Ferula hermonis, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Nigella sativa, Teucrium polium and Allium sativum protected erythrocytes against lipid peroxidation. The results indicate the importance of oxidatively damaged cellular proteins in compromising the rheologic behaviour of the erythrocytes, and that the medicinal plants which have anti-protein-oxidant activity (e.g. Nigella sativa and Allium sativum) could be rheologically useful, particularly in pathological conditions related to free radicals. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:


PMID: 15162361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

111.Lower doses of vanadate in combination with trigonella restore altered carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant status in alloxan-diabetic rats.

Mohamad S, Taha A, Bamezai RN, Basir SF, Baquer NZ.

School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India.

BACKGROUND: Vanadate treatment to diabetic rats has been reported to correct the altered carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant status. However, vanadate exerts these effects at relatively high doses and several toxic effects are produced. We used low doses of vanadate in combination with Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and evaluated their effect on the enzyme changes in diabetic rats. METHODS: Alloxan-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), TSP and a combined dose of Vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and TSP for 21 days. At the end of the experimental period, blood glucose levels and activities of pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in cytosolic fraction in the liver and kidney. RESULTS: Blood glucose levels increased markedly in diabetic rats. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels. Rats treated with combined dose of vanadate and trigonella had glucose levels comparable to control ones. Similar results were obtained with the activities of PK, PEPCK, SOD, GPx, GR, and CAT in liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Combined dose of vanadate and Trigonella was found to be most effective in correcting these alterations. CONCLUSIONS: Lower doses of vanadate could be used in combination with TSP to effectively counter diabetic alterations without any toxic side effects.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15026271 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

112.The combined effects of Trigonella and Allium extracts in the regulation of hyperthyroidism in rats.

Tahiliani P, Kar A.

Thyroid Research Unit, School of Life Sciences, UTD, Devi Ahilya University, Takshashila Campus, Indore, India.

The combined effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum extracts were evaluated for their ameliorative potential in the L-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidic rat model to contribute to an understanding of interaction between the two extracts. The investigation was carried out using two different doses. A comparison was made with the response of individual plant extracts at the previously studied effective dose in adult Wistar rats rendered hyperthyroidic by daily injections of L-thyroxine (300 microg/kg body wt., s.c.). Propylthiouracil (PTU), an antithyroid drug, was used as a reference compound. Alterations in serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), glucose, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) and oxygen consumption were studied as end parameters. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined to reveal any toxic effects of the drugs. The combined effects of Trigonella and Allium at 200 and 500 mg/kg body wt. respectively, were equipotent as compared to the individual extracts in lowering the serum concentrations of T3 and T4 in hyperthyroidic rats. Our findings reveal that some plant extracts in combination may not always prove to be synergistic. It is therefore suggested that Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum extracts may be used individually and not together in the regulation of hyperthyroidism.

Publication Types:

PMID: 14692727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

113.Supplementation of fenugreek leaves to diabetic rats. Effect on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in diabetic liver and kidney.

Devi BA, Kamalakkannan N, Prince PS.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, Tamil Nadu, India.

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of fenugreek leaves, an indigenous plant widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of the diet with fenugreek leaves showed a significant effect on hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia and glycosylated haemoglobin in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Fenugreek leaves improved the body weight and liver glycogen. Fenugreek leaves also showed a significant effect on key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in diabetic rats. The effect of fenugreek leaves was found to be similar to that of glibenclamide. Thus, fenugreek leaves exhibited antidiabetic action in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Insulin restored all the parameters to near normal levels in diabetic rats. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 14669264 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

114.Fenugreek affects the activity of beta-glucuronidase and mucinase in the colon.

Devasena T, Menon VP.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

The effect of fenugreek seeds on the activities of beta-glucuronidase and mucinase during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats was studied. Rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of DMH at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, for 15 weeks. Fenugreek seed powder was weighed depending upon the weight of individual rats and incorporated in the powdered pellet diet at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight. After an experimental period of 30 weeks the activity of beta-glucuronidase significantly increased in the colon, intestine, liver and colon contents in DMH administered rats when compared to an untreated control group. Increase in beta-glucuronidase may increase the hydrolysis of carcinogen-glucuronide conjugate, liberating carcinogen and/or co-carcinogen within the colonic lumen. Inclusion of fenugreek seed powder in the diet significantly decreased the activity of beta-glucuronidase in all the tissues studied. This may prevent the free carcinogens from acting on colonocytes. Mucinase helps in hydrolysing the protective mucin. Mucinase activity was increased in the colon content and fecal content of animals given DMH when compared to control, while the activity was significantly reduced in animals given DMH + fenugreek when compared to animals given DMH only. Our study shows that supplementation of fenugreek seeds in the diet inhibits colon carcinogenesis, by modulating the activities of beta-glucuronidase and mucinase. The beneficial effect may be attributed to the presence of fibre, flavonoids and/or saponins. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:

PMID: 14595593 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

115.Increased binding of LDL and VLDL to apo B,E receptors of hepatic plasma membrane of rats treated with Fibernat.

Venkatesan N, Devaraj SN, Devaraj H.

Dept. of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, 600025, Chennai, India.

BACKGROUND: Research has focussed on the hypocholesterolemic effects of certain types of dietary fiber such as enhancing conversion of hepatic cholesterol to bile acids or increase in catabolism of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the apo B,E receptor. AIM OF THE STUDY: The effect of oral administration of a unique fibre cocktail of fenugreek seed powder, guar gum and wheat bran (Fibernat) and its varied effects on some aspects of lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis in rats were examined. METHODS: Rats were administered Fibernat along with the atherogenic diet containing 1.5 % cholesterol and 0.1 % cholic acid. Amounts of hepatic lipids, hepatic and fecal bile acids and activity of hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) were determined. Transmission electron microscopic examination of the liver tissue and extent of uptake of (125)I-LDL and (125)I-VLDL by the hepatic apo B,E receptor was carried out. RESULTS: Food intake and body weight gain were similar between the 3 different dietary groups. Fibernat intake significantly increased apo B,E receptor expression in rat liver as reflected by an increase in the maximum binding capacity (B(max)) of the apo B,E receptor to (125)I-LDL and (125)I-VLDL. The activity of HTGL was increased by approximately 1.5-fold in Fibernat-fed rats as compared to those fed the atherogenic diet alone. A marked hypocholesterolemic effect was observed. Cholesterol homeostasis was achieved in Fibernat-fed rats. CONCLUSION: Two possible mechanisms are postulated to be responsible for the observed hypocholesterolemic effect a) an increase in conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and b) possibly by intra-luminal binding which resulted in increased fecal excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols. The resulting reduction in cholesterol content of liver cells coupled with upregulation of hepatic apo B,E receptors and increased clearance of circulating atherogenic lipoproteins-LDL and very low density lipoprotein (LDL and VLDL)-is the main mechanism involved in the hypocholesterolemic effect of Fibernat. The results suggest that Fibernat's effect on plasma LDL concentration is also possibly mediated by increased receptor-mediated catabolism of VLDL. Thus, Fibernat therapy is an effective adjunct to diet therapy and might find potential use in the therapy of hyperlipidemic subjects.

Publication Types:

PMID: 14569407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

116.Physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic characteristics of wheat-fenugreek supplemented blends.

Hooda S, Jood S.

Department of Foods and Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, India.

The effect of blending of fenugreek (raw, soaked, and germinated) flour (Trigonellafaenum graecum) from 5 to 20% in wheat flour on the rheological and sensory evaluation of bread, biscuit, noodle, and macroni was studied. Farinograph water absorption, dough development time, mixing tolerance index, and dough stability increased significantly with increased amount of fenugreek flour. Incorporation of fenugreek flour in wheat flour increased the protein and fat contents of blends but decreased the gluten contents. Among the supplemented blends, blends containing germinated fenugreek flour had higher protein contents (13.83-16.30%) up to 20%. Overall acceptability scores of bread, biscuit, noodles, and macroni were found highly acceptable up to 15, 10, and 20% levels, respectively.

PMID: 13678267 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

117.[Carbohydrate specificity of lectins from plants of the genus horsetail]

[Article in Ukrainian]

Antoniuk VO, Dubits'kyĭ OL.

Institut Cell Biology, NAS of Ukraine, Lviv.

Carbohydrate specificity of partially purified lectins from 4 species of plants: horse-tail genus Equisetum (Equisetum arvense L., E. sylvaticum L., E. hyemale L. and E. tempatelia Ehrh.) has been studies. The obtained lectins have similar carbohydrate specificity. Among the tested carbohydrates the best inhibitor of activity is phenyl-2-acetamido-alpha-D-glucosaminopyranoside. Lectins poorly interact with yeasty mannan and galactomannan Trigonella foenum graecum seeds. Among glycoproteins the best inhibitor of activity is ovomucoid.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12916246 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

118.Protective effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds in experimental ethanol toxicity.

Thirunavukkarasu V, Anuradha CV, Viswanathan P.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

The study investigates the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in experimental ethanol toxicity in rats. The ability of the seed extract to prevent iron-induced lipid peroxidation in vitro was also investigated. Ethanol feeding for 60 days resulted in significant increases in the activities of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The levels of serum lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and brain were also significantly elevated. Significantly lower activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase were observed in liver and brain accompanied by depletion in glutathione, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Activity of Ca(2+) ATPase in brain was significantly lowered. Simultaneous administration of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds with ethanol prevented the enzymatic leakage and the rise in lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant potential. The seeds exhibited appreciable antioxidant property in vitro which was comparable with that of reduced glutathione and alpha-tocopherol. Further, histopathological examination of liver and brain revealed that, aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds could offer a significant protection against ethanol toxicity. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 12916070 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

119.Effect of soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum graecum on glycemic, insulinemic, lipidemic and platelet aggregation status of Type 2 diabetic model rats.

Hannan JM, Rokeya B, Faruque O, Nahar N, Mosihuzzaman M, Azad Khan AK, Ali L.

Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, 1000 Dhaka, Bangladesh.

The soluble dietary fibre (SDF) fraction of Trigonella foenum graecum (Tf-sdf) has previously been shown to reduce postprandial elevation in blood glucose level of Type 2 model diabetic rats by delaying the digestion of sucrose. The Tf-sdf has now been investigated for its chronic effect on serum fructosamine, insulin and lipid levels, and on platelet aggregation in Type 2 diabetic rats. Tf-sdf was administered orally twice daily at a dose of 0.5 g kg(-1) for 28 days. It lowered the serum fructosamine level (P<0.05) with no significant change in the insulin level as compared with the control. Atherogenic lipids, i.e. triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were found to decrease significantly in Tf-sdf fed rats (P<0.01). HDL-cholesterol showed an opposite trend (P=0.024), but serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) values paralleled the atherogenic lipids (P=0.001). No significant effect on platelet aggregation (%) was found although there was a tendency to lower the aggregation (P=0.069). It is concluded that Tf-sdf has a beneficial effect on dyslipidemia and has a tendency to inhibit platelet aggregation in Type 2 model diabetic rats.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12902054 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

120.[Determination of trigonelline by HPLC and study on its pharmacokinetics]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhao HQ, Qu Y, Wang XY, Lu XY, Zhang XH, Hattori M.

Pharmaceutical College, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China. zhqzcxy@online.ln.cn

AIM: To develop a sensitive and specific HPLC method for determination of trigonelline in rabbit plasma, and study the pharmacokinetics in rabbit. METHODS: After ig of fenugreek extract and i.v. of trigonelline in rabbit, the biological samples could be well purified after precipitation of protein with methanol and acetonitrile. Asahipak NH2P-50 column was used, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water (90:10) at a flow-rate of 1.2 mL.min-1, and detection wavelength was set at UV 265 nm. The column temperature is 30 degrees C. RESULTS: The calibration curve was linear in the range from 0.98 mg.L-1 to 31.28 mg.L-1, with r = 0.9986, the detection limit of this method was 50 micrograms.L-1. The concentration-time curves of trigonelline in rabbits after ig and i.v. administration were shown to fit one-compartment and two-compartment open model, respectively. The main parameters after ig of fenugreek extract were as follow: T1/2(Ka) was 0.9 h, T1/2(Ke) was 2.2 h, V was 0.64 L.kg-1, AUC was 1.93 mg.min.L-1. The main parameters after i.v. of trigonelline were as follows: T1/2 alpha was 10.8 min, T1/2 beta was 44.0 min, K21 was 0.044 min-1, K10 was 0.026 min-1, K12 was 0.017 min-1, AUC was 931.0 mg.min.L-1. CONCLUSION: Trigonelline showed a middle rate of absorption and fast rate of elimination in rabbit. Meanwhile, the method is simple, accurate, with a good reproducibility, and it provide a basic method for the investigation of trigonelline and fenugreek pharmacokinetics.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12889128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

121.The use of fenugreek for breast feeding women.

Tiran D.

Department of Health and Social Care, University of Greenwich, Honeycomb Building, Mansion Site Avery Hill, Campus, Avery Hill Road, London SE9 2PQ, UK. m.d.tiran@greenwich.ac.uk

PMID: 12852932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

122.Oral administration of orthovanadate and Trigonella foenum graecum seed power restore the activities of mitochondrial enzymes in tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Thakran S, Salimuddin, Baquer NZ.

Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

The effect of oral administration of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP), a medicinal plant used extensively in Asia, on the mitochondrial metabolism in the alloxan diabetic rats has been investigated. Rats were injected with alloxan monohydrate (20 mg/100 g body wt) or vehicle (Na-acetate buffer), the former were treated with either 2 IU insulin i.p., 0.6 mg/ml SOV ad libitum, 5% TSP ad libitum, and a combination of 0.2% SOV and 5% TSP ad libitum for 21 days. Selected rate-limiting enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, hydrogen shuttle system, ketone body metabolism, amino acid metabolism and urea cycle were measured in the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions of liver, kidney and brain tissues of the experimental rats. Majority of the mitochondrial enzymes in the tissues of the diabetic rats had significantly higher activities compared to the control rats. Similarly, the activities of mitochondrial and cytosolic aminotransferases and arginase were significantly higher in liver and kidney tissues of the diabetic rats. The separate administrations of SOV and TSP to diabetic rats were able to restore the activities of these enzymes to control values. The lower dose of SOV (0.2%) administered in combination with TSP to diabetic rats lowered the enzyme activities more significantly than when given in a higher dose (0.6%) separately. This is the first report of the effective combined action of oral SOV and TSP in ameliorating the altered mitochondrial enzyme activities during experimental type-1 diabetes. Our novel combined oral administration of SOV and TSP to diabetic rats thus conclusively proves as a possible method to minimize potential vanadate toxicity without compromising its positive effects in the therapy of experimental type-1 diabetes.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12841630 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


123.Herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a systematic view.

Thompson Coon JS, Ernst E.

Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, 25 Victoria Park Road, Exeter EX2 4NT, United Kingdom. jo.thompson-coon@pms.ac.uk

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the clinical evidence for herbal medicinal products in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials of herbal medicinal products used to lower serum cholesterol. Systematic literature searches were conducted in 6 electronic data-bases. The reference lists of all papers and our files were searched for more relevant publications. Experts in the field and manufacturers of identified herbal medicinal products were contacted for published and unpublished data. No language restrictions were imposed. OUTCOMES MEASURED: All randomized clinical trials of serum cholesterol reduction, in which mono-preparations of herbal medicinal products were administered as supplements to human subjects, were included. RESULTS: Twenty-five randomized clinical trials involving 11 herbal medicinal products were identified. Guggul (Commiphora mukul), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), red yeast rice, and artichoke (Cynara scolymus) have been most extensively studied and have demonstrated reductions in total serum cholesterol levels of between10% and 33%. The methodological quality as assessed by the Jadad score was less than 3 (maximum, 5) for 13 of the 25 trials. CONCLUSIONS: Many herbal medicinal products have potential hypocholesterolemic activity and encouraging safety profiles. However, only a limited amount of clinical research exists to support their efficacy. Further research is warranted to establish the value of these extracts in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12791229 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


124.[Determination of trigonelline in Trigonella foenum-graecum by HPLC]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhao HQ, Qu Y, Wang XY, Zhang HJ, Li FM, Masao H.

Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Pharmaceutical College, Shenyang 110015, Liaoning, China.

OBJECTIVE: A HPLC method is established to determine the content of trigonelline in Trigonella foenum-graecum. METHOD: The medicinal material was extracted by petholeum ether-ethanol. Asahipak NH2P-50 column was used, mobilephase consisted of acetonitrile-water(75:25) and detection wavelength was set at UV 265 nm. RESULT: The standard curve was linear in the range of 3.68-73.60 micrograms.mL-1 with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The average recovery rate and RSD were 97.4% and 1.83% (n = 6) respectively. CONCLUSION: It provides scientific indexes for quality control of T. foenum-graecum.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12774399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

125.[Studies on chemical constituents from the seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum]

[Article in Chinese]

Shang MY, Cai SQ, Lin WH, Wang MC, Park JH.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China. my-shang@263.net

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents from the seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum. METHOD: The compounds were isolated with silica gel chromatography and their structures were identified by physical, chemical properties and spectral analysis. RESULT: Seven compounds were isolated and identified as N,N'-dicarbazyl, glycerol monopalmitate, stearic acid, beta-sitosteryl glucopyranoside, ethyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, D-3-O-methyl-chiroinsitol and sucrose. CONCLUSION: All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time and N,N'-dicarbazyl is a new natural product.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12774372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

126.Mechanism of action of a hypoglycemic principle isolated from fenugreek seeds.

Puri D, Prabhu KM, Murthy PS.

Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences, Dilshad Gardan, Delhi-110 095.

Mechanism of action of an orally active hypoglycemic principle isolated from water extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) was investigated in alloxan induced subdiabetic and overtly diabetic rabbits of different severities. The active principle was orally administered to the subdiabetic and mild diabetic rabbits (five in each group) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. The treatment produced significant attenuation of the glucose tolerance curve and improvement in the glucose induced insulin response, suggesting that the hypoglycemic effect may be mediated through stimulating insulin synthesis and/or secretion from the beta pancreatic cells of Langerhans. Prolonged administration of the same dose of the active principle for 30 days to the severely diabetic rabbits (n = 5) lowered fasting blood glucose significantly, but could elevate the fasting serum insulin level to a much lower extent, which suggests an extra-pancreatic mode of action for the active principle. The effect may also be by increasing the sensitivity of tissues to available insulin. The hypoglycemic effect was observed to be slow but sustained, without any risk of developing severe hypoglycemia.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12683221 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

127.Mitigation of thyroxine-induced hyperglycaemia by two plant extracts.

Tahiliani P, Kar A.

Thyroid Research Unit, School of Life Sciences, D. A. University, Khandwa Road, Indore - 452 017MP, India.

Extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) seed and Allium sativum (AS) bulb were evaluated for their efficacy to ameliorate l-thyroxine (l-T4) induced hyperglycaemia in rats. Simultaneously, the serum cholesterol concentration, a supporting parameter for thyroid function, was also estimated. Thyroxine treatment in rats (300 microg/kg b. wt./day) increased the levels of both the thyroid hormones, namely thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) with a concomitant elevation in serum glucose concentration and a reduction in serum cholesterol level. Administration of TFG (220 mg/kg/day) and AS (500 mg/kg/day) extracts in hyperthyroid animals decreased the serum glucose concentration as well as the serum thyroid hormones. For comparison, propyl thiouracil (PTU), an antithyroid compound, was used as the standard at a daily dose of 10 mg/kg. The reductions in serum glucose and thyroid hormone concentrations in the plant extract treated groups were comparable to that in PTU treated animals. Our findings indicate that TFG seed and AS bulb extracts may prove to be effective in the treatment of thyroxine-induced hyperglycaemia. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types: PMID: 12672166 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

128. Genetic relationship of Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae strains isolated from Caucasian region.

Biondi EG, Pilli E, Giuntini E, Roumiantseva ML, Andronov EE, Onichtchouk OP, Kurchak ON, Simarov BV, Dzyubenko NI, Mengoni A, Bazzicalupo M.

Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze, Italy.

Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae are two closely related species of the genus Sinorhizobium showing a similar host range, nodulating leguminous species of the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella, but their phylogenic relationship has not been elucidated yet. In this paper we report the application of three different molecular markers, (i) RFLP of nodD genes, (ii) 16S-23S rDNA intergenic gene spacer fingerprinting and (iii) amplification fragment length polymorphism to S. meliloti and S. medicae strains isolated from the Caucasian area, which is the region of origin of the host plant Medicago. The analysis of data could suggest the origin of S. medicae strains from an ancestral S. meliloti population.

Publication Types: PMID: 12670682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

129.Tobacco transgenic lines that express fenugreek galactomannan galactosyltransferase constitutively have structurally altered galactomannans in their seed endosperm cell walls.

Reid JS, Edwards ME, Dickson CA, Scott C, Gidley MJ.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, United Kingdom. j.s.g.reid@stir.ac.uk

Galactomannans [(1-->6)-alpha-D-galactose (Gal)-substituted (1-->4)-beta-D-mannans] are major cell wall storage polysaccharides in the endosperms of some seeds, notably the legumes. Their biosynthesis in developing legume seeds involves the functional interaction of two membrane-bound glycosyltransferases, mannan synthase (MS) and galactomannan galactosyltransferase (GMGT). MS catalyzes the elongation of the mannan backbone, whereas GMGT action determines the distribution and amount of Gal substitution. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) forms a galactomannan with a very high degree of Gal substitution (Man/Gal = 1.1), and its GMGT has been characterized. We now report that the endosperm cell walls of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seed are rich in a galactomannan with a very low degree of Gal substitution (Man/Gal about 20) and that its depositional time course is closely correlated with membrane-bound MS and GMGT activities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that seeds from transgenic tobacco lines that express fenugreek GMGT constitutively in membrane-bound form have endosperm galactomannans with increased average degrees of Gal substitution (Man/Gal about 10 in T(1) generation seeds and about 7.5 in T(2) generation seeds). Membrane-bound enzyme systems from transgenic seed endosperms form galactomannans in vitro that are more highly Gal substituted than those formed by controls under identical conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of structural manipulation of a plant cell wall polysaccharide in transgenic plants via a biosynthetic membrane-bound glycosyltransferase.

Publication Types: PMID: 12644698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC166908

130.Effect of T. foenumgraecum on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.

Vats V, Yadav SP, Grover JK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, 110049, New Delhi, India.

The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Trigonella foenumgraecum (FG). In the present study, FG (1g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of FG led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 14.4 and 46.64% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body weight was significantly increased in diabetics (P<0.0005) versus normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (P<0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of FG. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10 folds while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls versus controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by FG. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35, 50 and 60% of the controls and FG partially corrected this alteration in PFK, HK and GK.

PMID: 12639747 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

131.Therapeutic applications of fenugreek.

Basch E, Ulbricht C, Kuo G, Szapary P, Smith M.

Fenugreek has a long history of medical uses in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine, and has been used for numerous indications, including labor induction, aiding digestion, and as a general tonic to improve metabolism and health. Preliminary animal and human trials suggest possible hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of oral fenugreek seed powder.

Publication Types: PMID: 12611558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

132.Immunomodulatory effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) extract in mice.

Bin-Hafeez B, Haque R, Parvez S, Pandey S, Sayeed I, Raisuddin S.

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110 062, India.

Immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum graecum L., a widely used medicinal and dietary herb, was evaluated in male Swiss albino mice. Mice were treated with three doses of extract (50, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight per os) for 10 days. Body weight, relative organ weight, cellularity of lymphoid organs, delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response, plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay, haemagglutination titre (HT), quantitative haemolysis of SRBC (QHS) assay, phagocytosis, and lymphoproliferation were studied in various groups of animals. At doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in relative organ weight of thymus was observed but there was no effect on kidney and spleen weights. Liver weight also increased significantly at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg. However, no elevation in the levels of liver function test (LFT) enzymes was observed. As regards lymphoid organ cellularity, spleen recorded no significant increase at any dose, whereas cellularities of thymus and bone marrow were significantly increased. T. foenum graecum extract elicited a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the DTH response at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, but the change at higher dose of 250 mg/kg was not statistically significant. Humoral immunity as measured by PFC showed an elevated response at a dose of 100 mg/kg, but at 50 and 250 mg/kg, no significant effect was observed. In the HT test, plant extract also showed modulatory effect at all the doses. Plant extract elicited a significant increase in phagocytic index and phagocytic capacity of macrophages. Stimulatory response of plant extract was also observed in lymphoproliferation assay but the response was weak. Overall, T. foenum graecum showed a stimulatory effect on immune functions in mice. As it is used for a variety of medicinal purposes, its immunostimulatory effect, as reported in this study, strengthens the rationale of its use in several Ayurvedic and Unani drugs. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

Publication Type : PMID: 12586606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

133.[Analysis of amino acids in Trigonella foenumgraecum seeds]

[Article in Chinese]

Shang M, Cai S, Wang X.

Beijing Medical University, 100083.

Seventeen amino acids in Trigonella foenumgraecum seeds are analyzed by means of HITACHI Model 835-50 High Speed Amino Acid Analyzer. Seven of them are essential amino acid for human body. The results provide references for evaluating the usefulness of T. foenumgraecum seeds in medicine and food.

Publication Types: PMID: 12567948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

134.A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts.

El-Basheir ZM, Fouad MA.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Benha Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Twelve different representative areas in Sharkia Governorate were surveyed for head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis. The pre-valence was investigated among 120 houses containing 2,448 individual, with different age, sex and socioeconomic status. Examination was done by naked eye aided with hand-lens. A total of 137 individuals were infested. Infestation rates were higher in the rural areas with low socioeconomic levels, concrete houses with over-crowded family members. Children had significantly higher infestation rates than adults. Males had lower infestation rates than females. However, the hair length and permanent hair washing were the factors accounted for both age and sex difference in prevalence of pediculosis. Head lice infestations were found all over the year, but increased in summer and spring. One hundred infested patients (90 females and 10 males) with different aged and hair length were treated with tour mixed cream from plants Lawsonia alba L. (Henna). Trigonella faemum-gracanum (Fenugreek), Hibiscus cannabinus (Hibiscus) and Artemisia cina (Wormseed). The head lice completely disappeared within a week among those patients treated by henna mixed with aqueous extract of sheah (100%) or mixed with helba (75%) or with karkada (50%).

PMID: 12512805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

134.New legume sources as therapeutic agents.

Madar Z, Stark AH.

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel. madar@agri.huji.ac.il

This review evaluates the potential health benefits of three legume sources that rarely appear in Western diets and are often overlooked as functional foods. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and isolated fenugreek fractions have been shown to act as hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic agents in both animal and human studies. The unique dietary fibre composition and high saponin content in fenugreek appears to be responsible for these therapeutic properties. Faba beans (Vicia faba) have lipid-lowering effects and may also be a good source of antioxidants and chemopreventive factors. Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Vigna radiatus) are thought to be beneficial as an antidiabetic, low glycaemic index food, rich in antioxidants. Evidence suggests that these three novel sources of legumes may provide health benefits when included in the daily diet.

Publication Types:PMID: 12498629 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

135.Protodioscin isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) induces cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptosis in leukemic cell line H-60, but not in gastric cancer cell line KATO III.

Hibasami H, Moteki H, Ishikawa K, Katsuzaki H, Imai K, Yoshioka K, Ishii Y, Komiya T.

Faculty of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu-city, Mie 514-0001, Japan. hibasami@nurse.medic.mie-u.ac.jp

Protodioscin (PD) was purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) and identified by Mass, and 1H- and 13C-NMR. The effects of PD on cell viability in human leukemia HL-60 and human stomach cancer KATO III cells were investigated. PD displayed strong growth inhibitory effect against HL-60 cells, but weak growth inhibitory effect on KATO III cells. Morphological change showing apoptotic bodies was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with PD, but not in KATO III cells treated with PD. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the hypodiploid nuclei of HL-60 cells were increased to 75.2, 96.3, and 100% after a 3-day treatment with 2.5, 5, and 10 microM PD, respectively. The fragmentation by PD of DNA to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments, that is a characteristic of apoptosis, was observed to be both concentration- and time-dependent in the HL-60 cells. These findings suggest that growth inhibition by PD of HL-60 cells results from the induction of apoptosis by this compound in HL-60 cells.

Publication Types: PMID: 12469212 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

136.Remarkable, overlooked and new microfungi in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

Ale-Agha N, Feige GB, Linke K.

Botanisches Institut, Universität Essen Universitätsstrasse 5 D-45117 Essen, Germany.

During our investigations of the micro flora in NRW in the years of 1999 and 2000 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of micro fungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. Some of them are new for Germany: Podosphaera xanthii on Coreopsis verticillata; Cercospora traversiana on Trigonella foenum-graecum; Passalora dubia on Atriplex hortensis; Ophiobolus cirsii on Carduus spec.; Periconia britannica on Polemonium coeruleum; Ascochyta leptospora on Agropyron repens; Apomelasmia urticae on Urtica dioica; Cryptodiaporthe salicina on Salix caprea; Dasyscyphus nidulus on Anemone hupehensis; Rhopographus filicinus on Pteridium aquilinum; Sillia ferruginea on Corylus avellana; Sirococcus spiraeae on Spiraea spec. and Forsythia x intermedia. Examples of these findings are in the Herbarium ESS (Mycotheca Parva, Slg. Feige/Ale-Agha).

PMID: 12425026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

137.In vitro effect of fenugreek extracts on intestinal sodium-dependent glucose uptake and hepatic glycogen phosphorylase A.

Al-Habori M, Raman A, Lawrence MJ, Skett P.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Sana'a, Republic of Yemen.

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seed) is a food with traditional medicinal use in diabetes. Beneficial effects have been demonstrated in diabetic animals and both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Effects of a lipid extract A, crude ethanolic extract B, further sub-fractions of B (saponin-free C, saponin D and sapogenin E) and a gum fibre fraction F on intestinal sodium-dependent glucose uptake were investigated in vitro using rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. All fractions except A inhibited glucose-uptake at 0.33 and/or 3.3 mg/mL (p < 0.001). Greatest inhibition was observed with fractions D and E. Diosgenin and trigonelline (compounds reported in fenugreek) also inhibited glucose-uptake (IC50 values approximately 3 mg/ml, equivalent to 8 mM and 19 mM respectively) but did not account for the activity of the crude extracts. Fenugreek extracts had no effect on basal levels of glycogen phosphorylase a (HGPa) activity in rat hepatocyte suspensions. However fractions C and E caused a marginal but statistically significant inhibition (18.9 and 15.1% respectively, p < 0.05) of glucagon induction of this enzyme suggesting a glucagon-antagonist effect. Diosgenin (1.65 mg/ml; 4 mM) inhibited glucagon-induced HGPa activity by 20% (p < 0.05), and was more effective than trigonelline (non significant inhibition of 9.4% at 1.65 mg/ml, 10 mM).

Publication Types: PMID: 12369721 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2478541

138.Variation in diosgenin levels among 10 accessions of fenugreek seeds produced in western Canada.

Taylor WG, Zulyniak HJ, Richards KW, Acharya SN, Bittman S, Elder JL.

Saskatoon Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0X2. taylorw@em.agr.ca

A collection of 10 accessions of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), an annual legume, was grown during two summers at three plot locations in western Canada to assess whether genetic (accession) and environmental factors (site and year of production) influenced levels of diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin. The 60 harvested seed samples, each analyzed by single determinations on three subsamples of defatted and dried seed material, were hydrolyzed by a microscale procedure in water containing 2-propanol (70%) and sulfuric acid (1 M). The extracts were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with 6-methyldiosgenin as internal standard. Diosgenin levels from mature seeds ranged from 0.28 to 0.92% (28-92 microg/10 mg). Analysis of variance on combined diosgenin levels from the three sites and two years revealed that accession, accession x year, and site x year effects were significant for diosgenin content, whereas site, year, and site x accession effects were not. Four accessions, CN 19062, CN 19067, CN 19070, and CN 19071, were identified with high levels of diosgenin on the basis of the 2-year data set. In these accessions, mean levels of diosgenin plus yamogenin from seven site years were estimated at 0.70, 0.98, 0.84, and 0.87%, respectively.

PMID: 12358471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

139.Diversity of Sinorhizobium meliloti from the Central Asian Alfalfa Gene Center.

Roumiantseva ML, Andronov EE, Sharypova LA, Dammann-Kalinowski T, Keller M, Young JP, Simarov BV.

Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, St.-Petersburg-Pushkin 8, 196608, Russia. genet@yandex.ru

Sinorhizobium meliloti was isolated from nodules and soil from western Tajikistan, a center of diversity of the host plants (Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella species). There was evidence of recombination, but significant disequilibrium, between and within the chromosome and megaplasmids. The most frequent alleles matched those in the published genome sequence.

Publication Types: PMID: 12200335 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC124126

140.Alterations in antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage in experimental diabetic rat tissues: effect of vanadate and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum).

Genet S, Kale RK, Baquer NZ.

Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

With the premise that oxygen free radicals may be responsible for the severity and complications of diabetes, the level of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the oxidative damage were examined in the tissues of control, diabetic and treated rats. After 3 weeks of diabetes, the activity of CAT was significantly increased in heart in diabetes (about 6-fold) but decreased in liver. The SOD activity decreased significantly in liver but increased in brain. The activity of GPx decreased significantly in liver and increased in kidney. A significant increase was observed in oxidative damage in heart and kidney and a small increase in brain with decrease in liver and muscle. Vanadate and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) administration to diabetic animals showed a reversal of the disturbed antioxidant levels and peroxidative damage. Results suggest that oxidative stress play a key role in the complications of diabetes. Vanadate and fenugreek seeds showed an encouraging antioxidant property and can be valuable candidates in the treatment of the reversal of the complications of diabetes.

Publication Types: PMID: 12190123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

141.Enhancement of circulatory antioxidants by fenugreek during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

Devasena T, Menon VP.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

We have investigated the modulatory effect of fenugreek seeds (a spice) on circulatory lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant status during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Enhanced LPO in the circulation of tumor bearing animals was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Inclusion of fenugreek in the diet significantly decreased LPO with simultaneous enhancement of circulating antioxidants. We report that fenugreek exert its chemopreventive effect by decreasing circulatory LPO and enhancing antioxidant levels.

Publication Types: PMID: 12186747 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

142.Profiling isoflavonoids found in legume root extracts using capillary electrophoresis.

Baggett BR, Cooper JD, Hogan ET, Carper J, Paiva NL, Smith JT.

Department of Physical Sciences, Southeastern Oklahoma State University, P.O. Box 4025-Campus, Durant, OK 74701-0609, USA.

Legumes such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), white sweet clover (Melilotus alba) and fenugreek (Trigonella graecum), normally accumulate (-)-medicarpin and its malonated glucose conjugate as natural inhibitors of fungal pathogens. These plants also accumulate the biosynthetic precursor formononetin as well as the malonated glycoside. We were interested in developing a robust high-throughput method to quantitate the levels of these two isoflavonoids, both free and conjugated, in legume root extracts, for use in screening for mutant plants accumulating altered levels of these compounds. Capillary electrophoresis was examined as an alternative to current high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods to generate isoflavonoid profiles. The developed assay used micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) to provide the required selectivity in complex root extracts. The addition of 1,2-hexanediol to the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) electrolyte provided improved resolution of adjacent isoflavonoids. We examined the role of several factors including sample preparation, buffer composition, buffer pH, and organic component in the injected sample. The use of capillaries with longer path lengths were also examined to increase sensitivity. A comparison of results obtained using MEKC and HPLC showed good correlation in the relative amounts of the isoflavonoids studied.

Publication Types: PMID: 12179983 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

143.Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats.

Pandian RS, Anuradha CV, Viswanathan P.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.

The effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) compared to omeprazole was studied on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. The aqueous extract and a gel fraction isolated from the seeds showed significant ulcer protective effects. The cytoprotective effect of the seeds seemed to be not only due to the anti-secretory action but also to the effects on mucosal glycoproteins. The fenugreek seeds also prevented the rise in lipid peroxidation induced by ethanol presumably by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa thereby lowering mucosal injury. Histological studies revealed that the soluble gel fraction derived from the seeds was more effective than omeprazole in preventing lesion formation. These observations show that fenugreek seeds possess antiulcer potential.

PMID: 12127242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

144.Transfer specificity of detergent-solubilized fenugreek galactomannan galactosyltransferase.

Edwards ME, Marshall E, Gidley MJ, Reid JS.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland.

The current experimental model for galactomannan biosynthesis in membrane-bound enzyme systems from developing legume-seed endosperms involves functional interaction between a GDP-mannose (Man) mannan synthase and a UDP-galactose (Gal) galactosyltransferase. The transfer specificity of the galactosyltransferase to the elongating mannan chain is critical in regulating the distribution and the degree of Gal substitution of the mannan backbone of the primary biosynthetic product. Detergent solubilization of the galactosyltransferase of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) with retention of activity permitted the partial purification of the enzyme and the cloning and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA with proof of functional identity. We now document the positional specificity of transfer of ((14)C)Gal from UDP-((14)C)Gal to manno-oligosaccharide acceptors, chain lengths 5 to 8, catalyzed by the detergent-solubilized galactosyltransferase. Enzymatic fragmentation analyses of the labeled products showed that a single Gal residue was transferred per acceptor molecule, that the linkage was (1-->6)-alpha, and that there was transfer to alternative Man residues within the acceptor molecules. Analysis of the relative frequencies of transfer to alternative Man residues within acceptor oligosaccharides of different chain length allowed the deduction of the substrate subsite recognition requirement of the galactosyltransferase. The enzyme has a principal recognition sequence of six Man residues, with transfer of Gal to the third Man residue from the nonreducing end of the sequence. These observations are incorporated into a refined model for enzyme interaction in galactomannan biosynthesis.

PMID: 12114592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC166532

145.Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110049, India. jkgrover@hotmail.com

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.

Publication Types: PMID: 12020931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

146.Restoration on tissue antioxidants by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) in alloxan-diabetic rats.

Anuradha CV, Ravikumar P.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002.

The influence of fenugreek seed powder supplementation in the diet on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status was studied in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats. The protective effect of the aqueous extract of the seeds on the activity of calcium-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase (Ca2+ ATPase) in liver homogenate in the presence of Fe2+/ascorbate in vitro was also investigated. Normal and diabetic rats were provided with a diet supplemented with fenugreek seed powder for 30 days at a dosage of 2 g/kg body weight. The diabetic rats exhibited enhanced lipid peroxidation and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress associated with depletion of antioxidants in liver, kidney and pancreas. However, treatment with fenugreek seed powder normalised the alterations. In normal rats supplementation resulted in increased antioxidant status with reduction in peroxidation. Ca2+ ATPase activity in liver was protected by the aqueous extract to nearly 80% of the initial activity. The findings suggest that the soluble portion of the seeds could be responsible for the antioxidant property.

PMID: 11883146 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

147.Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study.

Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B.

Jaipur Diabetes and Research Centre.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycemic control and insulin resistance, determined by HOMA model, in mild to moderate type 2 diabetes mellitus we performed a double blind placebo controlled study. METHODS: Twenty five newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (fasting glucose < 200 mg/dl) were randomly divided into two groups. Group I (n=12) received 1 gm/day hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds and Group II (n=13) received usual care (dietary control, exercise) and placebo capsules for two months. RESULTS: At baseline both the groups were similar in anthropometric and clinical variables. Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid levels, fasting C-peptide, glycosylated haemoglobin, and HOMA-model insulin resistance were also similar at baseline. In group 1 as compared to group 2 at the end of two months, fasting blood glucose (148.3 +/- 44.1 to 119.9 +/- 25 vs. 137.5 +/- 41.1 to 113.0 +/- 36.0) and two hour postglucose blood glucose (210.6 +/- 79.0 to 181.1 +/- 69 vs. 219.9 +/- 41.0 to 241.6 +/- 43) were not different. But area under curve (AUC) of blood glucose (2375 +/- 574 vs 27597 +/- 274) as well as insulin (2492 +/- 2536 vs. 5631 +/- 2428) was significantly lower (p < 0.001). HOMA model derived insulin resistance showed a decrease in percent beta-cell secretion in group 1 as compared to group 2 (86.3 +/- 32 vs. 70.1 +/- 52) and increase in percent insulin sensitivity (112.9 +/- 67 vs 92.2 +/- 57) (p < 0.05). Serum triglycerides decreased and HDL cholesterol increased significantly in group 1 as compared to group 2 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Adjunct use of fenugreek seeds improves glycemic control and decreases insulin resistance in mild type-2 diabetic patients. There is also a favourable effect on hypertriglyceridemia.

Publication Types: PMID: 11868855 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

148.Sotolone production by hairy root cultures of Trigonella foenum-graecum in airlift with mesh bioreactors.

Peraza-Luna F, Rodríguez-Mendiola M, Arias-Castro C, Bessiere JM, Calva-Calva G.

Centro de Investigación y Graduados Agropecuarios/Instituto Tecnológico Agropecuario de Jalisco, Tlajomulco de Zúñiga, Jalisco, Mexico.

3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolone) and 3-amino-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, the postulated precursor of sotolone, were detected in hairy root cultures of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) by GC-MS. The hairy root cultures in both conical flasks and airlift with mesh bioreactors were achieved from hypocotyl of seedling by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. In flasks, the mathematical relationship between hairy root growth and conductivity was established and afterward used to evaluate the biomass evolution in bioreactor cultures due to the difficulty of obtaining direct biomass samples from the bioreactor. The GC-MS analyses of ethanolic extracts from hairy roots revealed the presence of two important compounds: sotolone (1.2% of the volatile fraction) and 3-amino-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (17% of the volatile fraction). These results point out that biotechnological production of sotolone in bioreactors is possible. Additionally, these hairy root cultures offer, for the first time, an excellent biological model to study the biosynthetic pathway of sotolone in fenugreek.

Publication Types: PMID: 11743801 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

149.Uptake of 45Ca by mitochondria of Trigonella foenum-graecum as influenced by selenium and mimosine--detailed kinetic analyses.

Sreekala M, Lalitha K.

Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Mitochondria from Trigonella foenum-graecum seedlings grown independently in the presence of either selenium (0.75 ppm) or mimosine (0.1 mM) exhibited respiration-stimulated energy-dependent uptake of Ca2+. Uptake studies were carried out independently at a series of Ca2+ concentrations at two different levels: (1) 1-20 MM and (2) 25-1,500 microM. Levels of uptake were 50-100% higher in the mitochondria of seedlings of both the Se and mimosine groups. Detailed kinetic analyses revealed negative cooperative effects operative during uptake of Ca2+ at 25-1,500 microM given in the medium. Hill coefficients for Ca2+ uptake by the mitochondria of different groups remained unchanged (nH, 0.75). Biphasic Scatchard plots were concave upward, suggestive of two classes of binding sites. High-affinity binding sites were estimated to be 16 nmol/mg protein with dissociation constant (KCa) of 2.5 x 10(9) L/mol. In contrast, graphical analyses of the uptake of Ca2+ in the range 1-20 microM in the medium revealed cooperative effects of positive nature. The present study demonstrates mixed cooperative effects during Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria from seedlings of T. foenum-graecum.

Publication Types: PMID: 11697770 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

150.Trigonellafoenum graecum (fenugreek) seed powder improves glucose homeostasis in alloxan diabetic rat tissues by reversing the altered glycolytic, gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes.

Raju J, Gupta D, Rao AR, Yadava PK, Baquer NZ.

Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed powder has been suggested to have potential antidiabetic effects. The effect of oral administration of Trigonella whole seed powder (5% in the diet) for 21 days on glycolytic, gluconeogenic and NADP-linked lipogenic enzymes were studied in liver and kidney tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were characterised by a 4-fold higher blood glucose level and a 0.7-fold lower body weight compared to normal controls. The activities of the glycolytic enzymes were significantly lower in the diabetic liver and higher in the diabetic kidney. The activities of gluconeogenic enzymes were higher in both liver and kidney during diabetes, however the activities of the lipogenic enzymes were decreased in both tissues during diabetes. Trigonella seed powder treatment to diabetic rats for 21 days brought down the elevated fasting blood glucose levels to control levels. The altered enzyme activities were significantly restored to control values in both the liver and kidney after Trigonella seed powder treatment. The therapeutic role of Trigonella seed powder in type-1 diabetes as exemplified in this study can be attributed to the change of glucose and lipid metabolising enzyme activities to normal values, thus stabilizing glucose homeostasis in the liver and kidney. These biochemical effects exerted by Trigonella seeds make it a possible new therapeutic in type-1 diabetes.

Publication Types: PMID: 11693199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

151.Microwave drying of selected greens and their sensory characteristics.

Fathima A, Begum K, Rajalakshmi D.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Manasa Gangotri, Mysore, Karnataka, India.

Green leafy vegetables which supply minerals and vitamins to the diet, are highly perishable. Therefore, post harvest losses are extremely high. Limited studies are available in the literature with regard to preservation of greens. The effect of microwave drying and storage on physical and sensory properties of selected greens (coriander, mint, fenugreek, amaranth and shepu) were therefore studied. Microwave drying was carried out at 100% power and a frequency of 2450 mHz. The drying time varied from 10 to 16 min for different greens. Microwave drying affected color, appearance and odor of all the greens. The relative reconstitution capacity (RRC) for different greens was coriander-10.3, mint-10.3, amaranth-38.3, fenugreek-31.7 and shepu-32.8. The RRC appeared to influence acceptability. Coriander and mint, which exhibited the lowest RRC (10.3%), had the lowest scores for flavor and color while amaranth, with the highest RRC (38.3%), had scores similar to those of fresh amaranth. Scores for the products prepared with dried fenugreek and shepu, although low, were not statistically significant. Microwave drying was highly suitable for greens such as amaranth; moderately suitable for shepu and fenugreek and less suitable for coriander and mint.

PMID: 11678436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

152.[Studies on flavonoids from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.)]

[Article in Chinese]

Shang M, Cai S, Han J, Li J, Zhao Y, Zheng J, Namba T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y, Fan W.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Beijing Medical University, Beijing 100083.

OBJECTIVE: To study the flavonoids in fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) produced in China. METHOD: The flavonoids were isolated with silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, and their structures were identified by physical, chemical properties and spectral analysis. RESULT: Five flavonoid compounds were isolated from fenugreek seeds and identified as vitexin, tricin, naringenin, quercetin and tricin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. CONCLUSION: Three flavonoids, tricin, naringenin and tricin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from fenugreek as well as from the plants of Trigonella for the first time.

Publication Types: PMID: 11599360 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

153.Flavonol glycosides from the stems of Trigonella foenum-graecum.

Han Y, Nishibe S, Noguchi Y, Jin Z.

Research Department of Chinese Materia Medicine, Pharmaceutical Institute of Tianjin, No. 308 Anshanxi Road, Nankai District, 300193, Tianjin, China.

Two kaempferol glycosides [kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-galactoside 7-O-beta-D-glucoside and kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucosyl(1-->2)-(6"-O-acetyl)-beta-D-galactoside 7-O-beta-D-glucoside] as well as the quercetin glycoside [quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-galactoside 7-O-beta-D-glucoside] were isolated from the stems of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae) along with a known kaempferol glycoside, lilyn [kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-galactoside]. Their structures were established by analysis of chemical and spectral evidence.

Publication Types: PMID: 11576601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

154.Nematicidal activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

Zia T, Siddiqui IA, Nazrul-Hasnain.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi - 75270, Pakistan.

The aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum caused significant (p < 0.05) mortality of Meloidogyne javanica larvae. The methanol soluble fraction eluted from pure distilled water showed the highest (>92%) nematicidal activity compared with the fractions eluted from pure methanol and different ratios of chloroform and methanol indicate that the nematicidal compound was polar in nature. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 11536387 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

155.Pseudo-maple syrup urine disease due to maternal prenatal ingestion of fenugreek.

Korman SH, Cohen E, Preminger A.

Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. korman@hadassah.org.il

Fenugreek, maple syrup and the urine of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) patients all share a characteristic odour originating from a common component, sotolone. Ingestion of fenugreek by mothers during labour resulted in a maple syrup-like odour in their newborn infants, leading to a false suspicion of MSUD.

Publication Types: PMID: 11532065 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

156.Retention of quality characteristics of dehydrated green leaves during storage.

Negi PS, Roy SK.

Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.

Green leafy vegetables are the most underexploited class of vegetables despite high nutritional value. Reports on nutritional composition and storage of some of the fresh leaves are available but the storage behavior of dehydrated leaves apparently has not been studied. Therefore, in the present study, two green leafy vegetables, savoy beets (Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) were dehydrated in a low temperature drier and stored for 9 months under ambient and cold stored conditions after packaging in single or double layers of high density polyethylene film (200 gauge). The quality was determined on the basis of retention of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll, and the extent of browning during storage. Retention of these quality characteristics depended on the crop and storage conditions. Double packed and cold stored samples of fenugreek retained 67% beta-carotene, whereas savoy beet leaves retained only 57% of the initial beta-carotene under similar conditions. Similarly, higher retention of ascorbic acid and chlorophyll, and lower browning was observed in double packed, cold stored samples. Results indicated the efficacy of double packed and cold stored samples over other combinations.

PMID: 11442228 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

157.Hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum in healthy volunteers.

Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA, Jawad AM, al-Hakiem MH.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq.

The safety and efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract was investigated using 20 male volunteers aged 20-30 years. They were randomly treated with either 40 mg/kg aqueous extract powder in 10 mL distilled water or 10 mL distilled water in which coffee simulated the extract. The extract significantly lowered blood glucose level by 13.4% 4 hours after ingestion. A significant change of 14.1% was observed in potassium levels. No significant alteration in serum cholesterol, total serum protein and blood urea occurred. Approximately one-third experienced feelings of hunger, frequency of micturition or dizziness during the 24 hours after ingestion. The aqueous extract effectively reduced blood glucose in normal subjects safely. Its hypokalaemic effect merits further investigation.

Publication Types: PMID: 11370345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

158.Kinetic analyses of mitochondrial 75selenium uptake in Trigonella foenum-graecum seedlings exposed to selenium and mimosine.

Sreekala M, Lalitha K.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai.

Uptake of (75Se) added in vitro was followed in mitochondria isolated from Trigonella foenum-graecum seedlings grown under different Se status (0.5-1.0 ppm) and with added mimosine (0.1 mM). Uptake of 75Se followed with added Na2 75SeO3 upto 20 microM in the medium was nonlinear in all the groups. Kinetic analyses of the uptake of 75Se for 1 min were carried out for all the groups. The results indicated a cooperative effect during Se transport. Graphical analyses using the Hill plot and Scatchard plot confirmed the existence of negative cooperativity during 75Se uptake. Scatchard plots were biphasic, suggesting the probable presence of two classes of binding sites. The presence of succinate or ATP in the incubation medium inhibited 75Se uptake by 40%. Studies with mitochondrial respiratory inhibitors indicated the uptake to be energy independent. A decrease in the uptake of 75Se by 40% effected by HgCl2, N-ethyl maleimide, and iodoacetate confirmed the interaction of active thiols in the process. The present study confirms the controlled nature of 75Se uptake by plant mitochondria.

Publication Types: PMID: 11354351 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

159.Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent.

Sur P, Das M, Gomes A, Vedasiromoni JR, Sahu NP, Banerjee S, Sharma RM, Ganguly DK.

Division of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Calcutta - 700 032, India.

The antineoplastic effect of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract has been evaluated in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in Balb-C mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of the alcohol extract of the seed both before and after inoculation of EAC cell in mice produced more than 70% inhibition of tumour cell growth with respect to the control. Treatment with the extract was found to enhance both the peritoneal exudate cell and macrophage cell counts. The extract also produced a significant antiinflammatory effect. We report here the antiinflammatory and antineoplastic effects, of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 11351364 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

160.Potential interaction between warfarin and boldo-fenugreek.

Lambert JP, Cormier J.

Pharmacy Department, CHAUQ, St-Sacrement Hospital, Québec City, Canada.

A patient was treated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation. During treatment, an increase in international normalized ratio (INR) and her admission that she was taking a variety of natural products, to include boldo and fenugreek, led us to suspect that some of these natural products could alter the effect of warfarin. When she stopped the culpable products, the INR returned to normal after 1 week. The herb-drug interaction was observed a second time after both products were reintroduced a few days later. The imputability of this interaction to both natural products, as determined by the Naranjo algorithm, suggests a probable association between boldo-fenugreek and increased bleeding time in patients treated with warfarin. No undesirable reaction was reported during telephone discussions with the patient. Nevertheless, we recommend that clinicians treating patients with anticoagulant therapy be vigilant when patients also take herbal agents.

Publication Types: PMID: 11310527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

161.Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves extract in the rat.

Ahmadiani A, Javan M, Semnanian S, Barat E, Kamalinejad M.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 19835-355, Tehran, Iran. aaz@hbi.dmr.or.ir

Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) leaves extract, an Iranian medicinal plant, were examined. For anti-inflammatory activity, the formalin-induced edema model was used. Hyperthermia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 20% (w/v) aqueous suspension of brewer's yeast. Sodium salicylate (SS) was used as a positive control. Both TFG and SS significantly reduced formalin-induced edema in single dose (TFG 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, SS 300 mg/kg) and chronic administration (TFG 1000 mg/kg and SS 300 mg/kg). TFG and SS also significantly reduced hyperthermia induced by brewer's yeast in 1 and 2 h after their administration. The results indicate that the TFG leaves extract possess anti-inflammatory as well as antipyretic properties in both i.p. and p.o. administration. Phytochemical studies indicate that alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, and phenols are the major component in the extract. Although existence of three anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects in this extract suggest a NSAID-like mechanism for it, but the presence of alkaloids, the absence of other effective compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, steroids, etc., and also its analgesic effect on tail-flick test that usually is not produced by NSAIDs, suggest another mechanism for the extract. So the possibility of alkaloids as effective compounds, in this extract, increases.

PMID: 11297864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

162.Evaluation of the oral hypoglycaemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (methi) in normal mice.

Zia T, Hasnain SN, Hasan SK.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, 75270, Karachi, Pakistan.

Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) (Leguminosae) is employed as a herbal medicine. Its seeds are known for their carminative, tonic and antidiabetic effects. A curative dose of Trigonella foenum-graecum also produces antiulcer action. In this study we have investigated the hypoglycaemic activities of the aqueous extract of the seeds Trigonella foenum-graecum in normal mice using oral route of adminstration. The methanolic extract administered through the same route produced hypoglycaemic effect only at the dose of 1 g/kg body weight. The aqueous extract is under further investigation to determine the chemical structure of the active component. The presence of hypoglycaemic activity in aqueous and methanolic extract indicates that the active compounds are polar in nature.

PMID: 11297850 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

163.Microdetermination of diosgenin from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds.

Taylor WG, Elder JL, Chang PR, Richards KW.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0X2. taylorw@em.agr.ca

Sulfuric acid hydrolysis of steroidal glycosides of Amber fenugreek was studied by capillary gas chromatographic analysis of diosgenin [(25R)-spirost-5-en-3-ol] and isomeric spirostadiene artifacts from 100 mg samples of seed material. Following extraction with 80% ethanol, highest recoveries of diosgenin occurred when hydrolyses were conducted in sulfuric acid, prepared at 1 molar (M) concentration in water containing 60-80% 2-propanol. Compared to a previous method with aqueous hydrochloric acid, the selected conditions of hydrolysis at 100 degrees C for 2 h with sulfuric acid in 70% 2-propanol reduced diene formation but did not completely eliminate these artifacts. Extraction of steroidal saponins with various alcohol/water mixtures prior to sulfuric acid hydrolysis gave similar recoveries of diosgenin. Application of the quantitative method to experimental samples of Amber, Quatro, and ZT-5 fenugreek, using 10 mg subsamples of crushed seed that had been defatted with petroleum ether and dried at 60 degrees C, gave diosgenin levels of 0.55, 0.42, and 0.75%, respectively. Levels of smilagenin and sarsasapogenin were very low in hydrolyzed seed extracts from ZT-5, a Canadian breeder line of fenugreek.

PMID: 11087460 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

164.Medicinal foodstuffs. XVII. Fenugreek seed. (3): structures of new furostanol-type steroid saponins, trigoneosides Xa, Xb, XIb, XIIa, XIIb, and XIIIa, from the seeds of Egyptian Trigonellafoenum-graecum L.

Murakami T, Kishi A, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M.

Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi, Kyoto, Japan.

Six new furostanol-type steroid saponins called trigoneosides Xa, Xb, XIb, XIIa, XIIb, and XIIIa were isolated from the seeds of Egyptian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae) together with six known furostanol-type steroid saponins: trigoneosides Ia, Ib, and Va, glycoside D, trigonelloside C, and compound C. The structures of trigoneosides Xa, Xb, Xlb, XIIa, Xllb, and XIIIa were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furostane-2alpha+ ++,3beta,22xi,26-tetraol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-,beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostane-2 alpha,beta,22xi,26tetraol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(l -->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostane2alpha++ +,beta,22xi,26-tetraol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(l -->4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-ene-3beta,22xi,26- triol 3-O-Ca-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-ene-3beta,22xi+ ++,26-triol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(25S)-furost-5-ene-3beta,22xi,26-t riol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1--4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.

PMID: 10923829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

165.Acute intraperitoneal and oral toxicity of the leaf glycosidic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum in mice.

Abdel-Barry JA, Al-Hakiem MH.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.

The present study was carried out to determine the acute toxicity of the leaf glycosidic extract of Trigonealla foenum-graecum by estimation of its medium lethal dose (LD(50)) after oral and intraperitoneal administration to mice and also to identify the target organs for its possible toxic effects. The main target organ affected among the four organs studied (liver, kidney, stomach, small and large intestine) was the liver, where early degeneration with infiltration of mononuclear and mild hepatitis was found in some animals treated with toxic doses of glycosidic extract. It is concluded that the glycosidic extract of T. foenum-graecum leaves is considered to be safe and have minimal adverse effect.

PMID: 10720790 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

166.Effects of vanadate, insulin and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) on creatine kinase levels in tissues of diabetic rat.

Genet S, Kale RK, Baquer NZ.

School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

The in vivo effects of insulin, and other insulino mimetic agents like vanadate and fenugreek (T. foenum graecum) were followed on the changes in the activities of creatine kinase in heart, skeletal muscle and liver of experimental diabetic rats. As compared to control rats, creatine kinase activities were found to decrease significantly in the tissues during experimental diabetes. All the antidiabetic compounds used namely, insulin, vanadate and Fenugreek seed powder normalised the decreased activities to almost control values. The effects of insulin and vanadate were comparable in restoring normoglycemia and the creatine kinase activities.

Publication Types:

PMID: 10641147 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


167.Modulation of some gluconeogenic enzyme activities in diabetic rat liver and kidney: effect of antidiabetic compounds.

Gupta D, Raju J, Baquer NZ.

School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

The effects of insulin, sodium orthovanadate and a hypoglycemic plant material, Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed powder were studied on the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in diabetic liver and kidney. The significantly increased activities of the two enzymes during diabetes in liver and kidney were found to be lowered to almost control values by the use of the antidiabetic compounds. Diabetic liver exhibited a much greater increase in the activities of the two enzymes than diabetic kidney. The highest percentage of reversal to normal values was seen using the combination of vanadate and Trigonella seed powder. The lowered rate of growth of the animals as well as the increased blood sugar were reversed almost to the control levels by the Trigonella seed powder and vanadate treatment. The inclusion of the Trigonella seed powder overcame the toxicity of vanadium encountered when it was given alone as insulin mimetic agent. Much lower levels of vanadate were needed when it was given in combination with Trigonella seed powder. Their combined effects were better at restoring the above parameters than those induced by insulin administration.

Publication Types:  PMID: 10641146 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

168.Effect of antidiabetic compounds on glyoxalase I activity in experimental diabetic rat liver.

Raju J, Gupta D, Rao AR, Baquer NZ.

Hormone and Drug Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

The activity of glyoxalase I from the soluble fraction of diabetic rat liver was found to decrease as compared to the control. Sodium orthovanadate in drinking water and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder when administered to these diabetic animals were found to reverse the activity of glyoxalase I to control values. A combination of the above two antidiabetic compounds showed a better reversal. Vanadate and Trigonella seed powder treatment separately to diabetic rats also normalized hyperglycemia together with glyoxalase I activity. A combination of vanadate and Trigonella seed powder also restored the other general parameters of the diabetic animals.

Publication Types:  PMID: 10641145 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

169.Oxidative stress during selenium deficiency in seedlings of Trigonella foenum-graecum and mitigation by mimosine Part II. Glutathione metabolism.

Santosh TR, Sreekala M, Lalitha K.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai.

Adaptive alterations in glutathione (GSH) metabolism were studied during oxidative stress induced by selenium (Se) deficiency in germinating seedlings of Trigonella foenum-graecum grown for 72 h and the response to supplementation individually of Se or mimosine was explored. Growth enhancement with improved mitochondrial efficiency was elicited by supplementation of Se at 0.5-0.75 ppm or mimosine at 0.1-0.2 mM. Total thiol and protein levels of mitochondrial and soluble fractions, in general, did not vary significantly with supplementation of either Se or mimosine except that the mitochondrial protein levels in mimosine groups (0.1-0.2 mM) decreased by 20-30%. Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased by twofold in activity toward H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), and t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) in Se groups, and by 50-60% increase toward H2O2 and CHP but by a twofold enhancement in enzyme activity with tBHP in mimosine groups. Soluble GSH-Px activity increased by 30-40% only in mimosine groups and remained unaltered in Se groups. Glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) in the soluble fraction of both Se and mimosine groups increased dramatically by fivefold to sixfold. Distinct differences were noted in the response of the stressed seedlings toward exposure to Se or mimosine and included a decline in glutathione reductase (GR) activity by 50-60% in both mitochondria and soluble fractions of Se groups and an increase in GR activity of the mitochondria by twofold and of the soluble enzyme activity by 30% in the mimosine groups. Mimosine exposure resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels, but, in contrast, a significant enhancement by 50% was noted in the Se group at 0.75 ppm. The results including the differential response of GR activity to Se or mimosine supplementation are reflective of an effective reductive environment in Se groups and increased turnover of GSH in the presence of mimosine.

Publication Types:  PMID: 10610060 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

170.Oxidative stress during selenium deficiency in seedlings of Trigonella foenum-graecum and mitigation by mimosine. Part I. Hydroperoxide metabolism.

Sreekala M, Santosh TR, Lalitha K.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai.

Oxidative stress during selenium (Se) deficiency in the seedlings of Trigonella foenum-graecum grown for 72 h was investigated and the response to supplemented levels of Se (0.5-1 ppm) and mimosine (0.05-1 mM) was evaluated. Beneficial effects of Se was maximal at 0.75 ppm. Mimosine, a toxic amino acid, was also found to be beneficial to the growth of the seedlings exposed up to 0.2 mM. When compared to the stressed seedlings, mitochondrial oxygen uptake from seedlings of Se (0.75 ppm) group and mimosine (0.2 mM) group exhibited threefold enhancement in state 3 respiration rate and a controlled state 4 rate, with respiratory control ratios of 5-8. Upon supplementation at the optimal levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were enhanced fourfold with Se and eightfold with mimosine in the mitochondria. The soluble activity in mimosine groups increased twofold, but only by 75% in Se groups. Peroxidase activity registered a significant increase by threefold in mitochondria and fourfold in soluble fraction in both Se and mimosine groups. Exposure to Se or mimosine exhibited a differential response in the mitochondrial catalase and ascorbate peroxidase (Asc-Px) activities. In the Se groups, both catalase and Asc-Px in mitochondria decreased by 50-60%, which was contrasted by 60% increase in Asc-Px activity and 40% in catalase activity in mimosine groups. Supplementation with either Se or mimosine evoked similar responses of increases with respect to soluble catalase by twofold to threefold and Asc-Px by 90%. The results of the present study reveal (1) the prevalence of oxidative stress in T. foenum-graecum during Se deficiency, (2) enhanced mitochondrial functional efficiency mediated by Se and mimosine independently, and (3) an antioxidative role for mimosine during Se deficiency. The study demonstrates for the first time that mimosine, a naturally occurring toxic amino acid, could be a beneficial growth factor in concentrations between 0.1 and 0.2 mM.

Publication Types:  PMID: 10610059 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

171.Hypocholesterolemic effect of germinated fenugreek seeds in human subjects.

Sowmya P, Rajyalakshmi P.

Department of Foods and Nutrition, Post Graduate and Research Centre, A.N.G.R. Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India.

The effect of consumption of germinated fenugreek seed powder at two different levels, i.e., 12.5 g and 18.0 g on the blood lipid profiles of twenty hypocholesterolemic adults of both sexes in the age range of 50-65 years was studied. The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e., Group I and Group II who were asked to incorporate the powder into any dish of their choice at the rates of one packet per day containing 12.5 g and 18.0 g of the germinated powder, respectively, for a period of one month. Fasting blood was drawn intravenously one day before and at the end of 30 days feeding trials. The findings revealed that germination had brought distinct changes in soluble fiber content of the seeds. Consumption of the seed at both the levels resulted in a hypocholesterolemic effect. Between the two levels, higher levels of consumption, i.e., 18.0 g of the germinated seed resulted in a significant reduction in total cholesterol and LDL levels. No significant changes were found in HDL, VLDL and triglyceride levels in all the subjects.

PMID: 10540988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

172.Enhancement of beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase of Trigonella foenum-graecum by exposure to the allelochemical mimosine.

Santosh TR, Balasubramanian KK, Lalitha K.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India.

Glycohydrolases assume significance in the metabolism of biological systems and have important industrial applications in the areas of pharmaceuticals, food, and medicine. Glycosidases were screened in germinating seeds, and attempts were made to enhance their levels. Screening of glycosidases in the seedlings during a 72 h germination period revealed higher levels of beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase in Trigonella foenum-graecum compared to Cicer arietinum and Vigna radiata. Activity of beta-galactosidase was in general higher than that of beta-glucosidase in all the seedlings tested. During growth, exposure of the seedlings to an allelochemical, mimosine, at 0.1 mM resulted in the enhancement of enzyme levels by 50% in the seedlings of T. foenum-graecum, whereas the addition of mimosine to the assay medium in vitro did not affect the enzyme activities. Hydrolytic activity was enhanced by addition of glycerol in the medium up to 0.1 M in the case of beta-glucosidase and with 0.05 M in the case of beta-galactosidase. In general, the hydrolytic rate was higher by about 30% in the seedlings exposed to mimosine compared to that of the control. Concomitant enhancement in the rates of transgalactosidation by 51% and transglucosidation by 23% was also noted, underscoring the relevance of plant glycohydrolases for appropriate applications.

PMID: 10563917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

173.Inhibition of triiodothyronine production by fenugreek seed extract in mice and rats.

Panda S, Tahiliani P, Kar A.

Thyroid Research Unit, School of Life Sciences, Vigyan Bhawan, D.A. University, Khandwa Road, Indore, 452 017, India.

The effects of fenugreek seed extract on the alterations in serum thyroid hormone concentrations were studied in adult male mice and rats. Simultaneously, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were examined. Administration of methi seed extract (0.11 g kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) for 15 days) to both mice and rats significantly decreases serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentration and T(3)/T(4) ratio, but increases thyroxine (T(4)) levels and body weight. While hepatic LPO and CAT activities were not altered, a significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both the animal models. These findings suggest that fenugreek seed extract induced inhibition in T(4)to T(3) conversion is not peroxidation-mediated and the inhibition in SOD activity could be the result of a decrease in the protein anabolic hormone, T3. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

Publication Types:

PMID: 10527654 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

174.Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

Yadav SK, Sehgal S.

Department of Foods and Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India.

Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) stored in polyethylene bags and without packaging for 24 or 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 or 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun); blanched (5, 10 or 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analyzed for total and extractable calcium and zinc content. The Ca and Zn content of these leaves varied from 970 to 2230 and 10.50 to 12.30 mg/100 g DM and the percentage HCl-extractability was 80.34 to 83.04 and 82.43 to 83.90, respectively. Non significant effects of drying and storage were observed on total Ca and Zn content and HCl-extractability while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of HCl-extractability of these two minerals. Thus, cooking and blanching are good ways to improve the HCl-extractability of Ca and Zn.

PMID: 10517284 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

175.Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment of debitterized fenugreek powder in the mouse and rat.

Muralidhara, Narasimhamurthy K, Viswanatha S, Ramesh BS.

Department of Biochemistry & Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India.

Increased human use of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) entails the generation of toxicity data in experimental animals. In this investigation, toxic effects of debitterized fenugreek (DFG) powder have been assessed following acute and subchronic regimens in mice and rats. In the acute study, DFG powder intragastrically administered to albino mice (CFT-Swiss, Mus musculus) and albino rats (CFT-Wistar, Rattus norvegicus) of both sexes failed to induce any signs of toxicity or mortality up to a maximum practical dosage of 2 and 5 g/kg body weight, respectively. Further, no significant alterations either in relative organ weights or their histology were discernible at terminal autopsy. In the 90-day subchronic study, DFG fed to weanling rats of both sexes at dietary doses of 0, 1, 5 and 10% in a pure diet had no effect either on the daily food intake or growth. Terminal autopsy revealed no alterations in relative organ weights of various vital organs, or their histoarchitecture. Haematological constants in DFG-fed rats were on par with those of controls. Further, biochemical measurements in serum and liver of DFG-fed rats revealed no appreciable changes in various parameters such as enzyme levels of GPT , GOT and ALP, as well as many serum constituents such as proteins, cholesterol, urea and creatinine at any of the dietary levels. From these results, it may be concluded that DFG does not produce any significant acute and cumulative toxicity at the doses administered, as reflected by the various parameters investigated.

Publication Types: PMID: 10506006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

176.Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in diabetic rats.

Ravikumar P, Anuradha CV.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India.

The effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on blood lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan diabetic rats was studied. Increased lipid peroxidation and alterations in circulating antioxidants were observed in the diabetic state. The levels of glutathione, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in blood were significantly lowered and alpha-tocopherol content was increased. Supplementation of fenugreek seeds in the diet lowered lipid peroxidation. The contents of glutathione and beta-carotene were increased and the alpha-tocopherol content was lowered. The level of ascorbic acid was unaltered. The level of antioxidants were higher in normal rats which were fed with the fenugreek supplemented diet compared with control animals which were fed commercial rat chow. The study shows that disrupted free radical metabolism in diabetic animals may be normalized by fenugreek seed supplementation in the diet.

PMID: 10353156 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

177.Central effects of AC-1 and TFG-1.

Balabanov P, Karamanos AP.

Department of Pharmacology and Drug Toxicology, Higher Medical Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

AC-1 and TFG-1 are both herb extracts from Avena Sativa and Trigonella Foenum Graecum respectively. In folk medicine, Trigonella Foenum Graecum is used as appetiser and general tonic as well as for pellagra treatment and for treatment of pulmonary disorders. Avena Sativa is another commonly used appetiser and tonic. In our study we examined the influence of AC-1 and TFG-1 on some of the major functions of the central nervous system. We divided the test animals in three groups and after administering the herb extracts we monitored different pharmacological parameters-Phenamine toxicity and stereotypy, Hexobarbital sleep, elementary conditioned reflexes and antiseizure activity.

PMID: 10206008 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

178.Selenium-mediated differential response of beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase of germinating Trigonella foenum-graecum.

Sreekala M, Lalitha K.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai.

Beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase activity profile tested in different seeds during 24 h germination revealed reasonably high levels of activity in Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. In all seeds tested, beta-galactosidase activity was, in general, higher than that of beta-glucosidase. T. foenum-graecum seedlings exhibited maximal total and specific activities for both the enzymes during 72 h germination. Se supplementation as Na2SeO3 up to 0.75 ppm was found to be beneficial to growth and revealed selective enhancement of beta-galactosidase activity by 40% at 0.5 ppm Se. The activities of both the enzymes drastically decreased at 1.0 ppm level of Se supplementation. On the contrary, addition of Na2SeO3 in vitro up to 1 ppm to the enzyme extracts did not influence these activities. Hydrolytic rates of beta-glucosidase in both control and Se-supplemented groups were enhanced by 20% with 0.05 M glycerol in the medium and 30% at 0.1 M glycerol. The rates were marginally higher in Se-supplemented seedlings than the controls, irrespective of added glycerol in the medium. In contrast, hydrolysis by beta-galactosidase showed a trend of decrease in Se-supplemented seedlings compared to the control, when glycerol was present in the medium. Addition of Se in vitro in the assay medium showed no difference in the hydrolytic rate by beta-galactosidase when compared to control, while the activity of beta-glucosidase declined by 50%. Se-grown seedlings showed an enhancement of transglucosidation rate by 40% in the presence of 0.1 M glycerol. The study reveals a differential response to Se among the beta-galactosidase and beta-glucosidase of T. foenum-graecum with increase in the levels of beta-galactosidase activity.

Publication Types:  PMID: 9845479 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

179.Study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics.

Alarcon-Aguilara FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Perez-Gutierrez S, Aguilar-Contreras A, Contreras-Weber CC, Flores-Saenz JL.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, México, DF, México.

The purpose of this research was to study the anti-hyperglycemic effect of 28 medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Each plant was processed in the traditional way and intragastrically administered to temporarily hyperglycemic rabbits. The results showed that eight out of the 28 studied plants significantly decrease the hyperglycemic peak and/or the area under the glucose tolerance curve. These plants were: Guazuma ulmifolia, Tournefortia hirsutissima, Lepechinia caulescens, Rhizophora mangle, Musa sapientum, Trigonella foenum graceum, Turnera diffusa, and Euphorbia prostrata. The results suggest the validity of their clinical use in diabetes mellitus control, after their toxicological investigation.

PMID: 9683340 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

178. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: a novel amino acid potentiator of insulin secretion.

Sauvaire Y, Petit P, Broca C, Manteghetti M, Baissac Y, Fernandez-Alvarez J, Gross R, Roye M, Leconte A, Gomis R, Ribes G.

Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Substances Naturelles Végétales, Université Montpellier II, France.

We report the characterization of a new insulinotropic compound, 4-hydroxyisoleucine. This amino acid has been extracted and purified from fenugreek seeds, which are known in traditional medicine for their antidiabetic properties. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine increases glucose-induced insulin release, in the concentration range of 100 micromol/l to 1 mmol/l, through a direct effect on isolated islets of Langerhans from both rats and humans. The stimulating effect of 4-hydroxyisoleucine was strictly glucose dependent; indeed, ineffective at low (3 mmol/l) or basal (5 mmol/l) glucose concentrations, the amino acid potentiated the insulin secretion induced by supranormal (6.6-16.7 mmol/l) concentrations of glucose. In addition, in the isolated perfused rat pancreas, we could show 1) that the pattern of insulin secretion induced by 4-hydroxyisoleucine was biphasic, 2) that this effect occurred in the absence of any change in pancreatic alpha- and delta-cell activity, and 3) that the more glucose concentration was increased, the more insulin response was amplified. Moreover, 4-hydroxyisoleucine did not interact with other agonists of insulin secretion (leucine, arginine, tolbutamide, glyceraldehyde). Therefore, we conclude that 4-hydroxyisoleucine insulinotropic activity might, at least in part, account for fenugreek seeds' antidiabetic properties. This secretagogue may be considered as a novel drug with potential interest for the treatment of NIDDM.

Publication Types:  PMID: 9519714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

179.Hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA, Al-Hakiem MH.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq.

The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf were tested for hypoglycaemic activity in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats. Graded amounts (0.06, 0.2, 0.5, 1 g/kg, i.p. and 1, 2, 8 g/kg, p.o.) of the aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf when given to both normal and alloxan-diabetic rats, a significant reduction of blood glucose concentration was noticed. On the other hand ethanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf produced no reduction in blood glucose concentration in normal rats but intra-peritoneal administration of 0.8 g/kg of the ethanolic leaf extract to diabetic rats produced a significant reduction of blood glucose concentration (p < 0.02) at 2 and 24 h only. Intraperitoneal and oral acute toxicity (LD50) and target organ effects were studied for the aqueous extract of Trigonella leaf in mice. LD50 of i.p. and oral administration were 1.9 and 10 g/kg respectively. The main organ affected after i.p. administration of the aqueous extract was the liver while oral administration of the aqueous extract of Trigonella did not produce any sign of organ damage. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves given both orally and intraperitoneally possesses a hypoglycaemic effect in normoglycaemic and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats.

PMID: 9421250 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

180.Antinociceptive effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves extract.

Javan M, Ahmadiani A, Semnanian S, Kamalinejad M.

Department of Pharmacology, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

There are some reports concerning the antinociceptive effects of the plant Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) in Iranian traditional medicine. Because of the side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive drugs, and in search for more potent and less harmful compounds, we tried to study the antinociceptive effects of TFG leaves by using tail-flick and formalin tests. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 500 mg/kg of TFG extract and 100 and 300 mg/kg of sodium salicylate (SS), as a positive control, did not show any effect in the tail-flick test, but the 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of the extract produced significant increase in the tail-flick latency. SS (300 mg/kg, i.p.) induced antinociception in the second phase of the formalin test. TFG (500 mg/kg, i.p.) demonstrated antinociception only in the first phase, but 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, i.p. doses alleviated the pain in both phases. Preliminary LD50 of the extract was very close to 4000 mg/kg, i.p. We conclude that: (1) the extract of TFG leaves produces antinociceptive effects through central and peripheral mechanisms; (2) the antinociceptive effects of 2000 mg/kg of the extract was more potent than 300 mg/kg of SS.

Publication Types: PMID: 9406901 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

181.Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

Ziyyat A, Legssyer A, Mekhfi H, Dassouli A, Serhrouchni M, Benjelloun W.

Department of Biology, University Mohamed the First, Faculty of Sciences, Oujda, Morocco.

In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes.

PMID: 9324004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

182.[Chemical constituents of the stems and leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang D, Sun H, Han Y, Wang X, Yuan C.

Heilongjiang University of TCM, Harbin.

Two compounds were isolated from the leaves and stems of Trigonella foenum-graecum, and on the basis of spectral analysis, their structures were elucidated as gamma-schizandrin and scopoletin. They were isolated from T. foenum-grecum for the first time.

Publication Types: PMID: 11038916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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